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Diversity and the College Experience. Aaron Thompson, PhD Joe Cuseo , PhD. CHAPTER 2: MAJOR FORMS AND DIMENSIONS OF DIVERSITY. Ethnic & Racial Diversity. America is rapidly becoming a more racially and ethnically diverse nation. Ethnic & Racial Diversity.

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Diversity and the college experience

Diversity and the College Experience

Aaron Thompson, PhD

Joe Cuseo, PhD


CHAPTER 2:

MAJOR FORMS AND DIMENSIONS OF DIVERSITY


Ethnic racial diversity
Ethnic & Racial Diversity

America is rapidly becoming a more racially and ethnically diverse nation.


Ethnic racial diversity1
Ethnic & Racial Diversity

  • By the middle of the 21st century, the minority population will have grown from one-third of the U.S. population to more than one half (54%) with more than 60% of the nation’s children expected to be members of minority groups.


Native americans
Native Americans

  • There is only one group who can truly be called American “natives;” they are American Indians.

  • All current white Americans are descendants of immigrants who migrated to the U.S. from other countries.


Hispanic americans latinos
Hispanic Americans (Latinos)

  • There are 48 million American citizens of Hispanic origin (including the 3.8 million residents of Puerto Rico), nearly half of whom reside in California and Texas.

  • Hispanics are the largest minority population in the U.S. (15%).


African americans blacks
African Americans (Blacks)

  • Although most of the nation’s immigrants chose to come to the U.S. of their own accord, the vast majority of African Americans were brought to America against their will to perform forced labor or be sold as slaves.


African americans blacks1
African Americans (Blacks)

  • Today, African Americans now enjoy the same legal rights as whites in the U.S. However, it is important to remember that less than 50 years ago African Americans did not have the same human rights as other U.S. citizens.


Asian americans
Asian Americans

  • Asians are America’s second-fastest growing minority group (after Hispanics). The Asian population in the U.S. is projected to increase by 213% between 2000 and 2050, compared to a total population increase of 49% over the same time period.



Women
Women

  • Although women are not a minority group in terms of their overall population, they have faced significant prejudice and discrimination throughout history.


Women1
Women

  • Women continue to experience inequities with respect to employment compensation.

  • Women with graduate degrees earn only slightly more than men with high school diplomas; $41,995 for women vs. $40,822 for men (Rose & Hartmann, 2004).


Gay lesbian bisexual transgender people
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual & Transgender People

  • Nearly 600,000 same-sex couples reside in the U.S.

  • It is estimated that there are 6 – 9 million children in America who live in a household where there are two gay or lesbian parents (Stein, Perrin, Potter, 2004).


Diversity in income
Diversity in Income

  • According to the U.S. Census, the wealthiest 20% of Americans control approximately 50% of the total American income; and the poorest 20% controls 4% of the nation’s income.


Diversity in level of education
Diversity in Level of Education

  • Although there is more racial and ethnic diversity among college students today than at any other time in the history of the U.S, the college enrollment rates for minority groups are still consistently lower than those of majority students.


Religious diversity
Religious Diversity

  • In the U.S., approximately 90% of Americans report having a religious preference (Gallup, 2004).

  • While all of the world religions are represented in the U.S., most Americans report they are Christians or Jews (Luhman, 2007).


Generational diversity
Generational Diversity

  • There are several generations currently living and working side by side in the U.S.:

    • Traditional

    • Baby Boomer

    • Generation X

    • Generation Y (Millennial)


Traditional generation
Traditional Generation

  • Born during the years 1922-1945

  • Influenced by the Great Depression, World War I and II


Baby boomer generation
Baby Boomer Generation

  • Born during the years 1946-1964

  • Influenced by the Vietnam War, Watergate, and the human rights movement


Generation x
Generation X

  • Born during the years 1965-1980

  • Influenced by Sesame Street, MTV, AIDS, and soaring divorce rates


Generation y millennials
Generation Y “Millennials”

  • Born during the years 1981-2002

  • Influenced by 9/11, Columbine, and the collapse of Enron

9/11/01


Individual diversity
Individual Diversity

Regardless of one’s group membership, each individual within a group has personal characteristics that make him or her unique.


Key dimensions of individual diversity
Key Dimensions of Individual Diversity

  • Personal Interests

  • Personal Values

  • Self-Concept

    • Self-Esteem

    • Self-Efficacy

  • Aptitudes or Talents

  • Learning Styles

    • How we receive, perceive, and process information

  • Personality Traits


Multiple intelligences
Multiple Intelligences

  • Based on studies of gifted and talented individuals, experts in different lines of work, and a variety of other sources, Howard Gardner (1983, 1993) has identified multiple types of human intelligence.


Forms of multiple intelligence
Forms of Multiple Intelligence

  • Linguistic Intelligence

  • Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

  • Spatial Intelligence

  • Musical Intelligence

  • Interpersonal (Social) Intelligence

  • Intrapersonal (Self) Intelligence

  • Bodily-Kinesthetic (Psychomotor) Intelligence

  • Naturalist Intelligence


Individual learning styles
Individual Learning Styles

  • Learning styles refers to differences in learning preferences:

    • Auditory

    • Visual

    • Kinesthetic


Choice of major
Choice of Major

Abilities

(Intelligences)

Learning

Styles

Personal

Interests

Personal

Values


Individual personality types
Individual Personality Types

  • One of the most well known categories of personality types was created by psychologist, John Holland (1985). He identified the following six types as being most relevant to an individual’s career choice:


Individual personality types1
Individual Personality Types

  • Realistic

  • Investigative

  • Artistic

  • Social

  • Enterprising

  • Conventional


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