2010 Phased-Array Radar Innovative Sensing Experiment
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2010 Phased-Array Radar Innovative Sensing Experiment. Photo by Adam Smith. Photo by James Murnan. Pam Heinselman NSSL. Sebastian Torres NSSL and CIMMS. Daphne LaDue OU/CAPS. Heather Lazrus SSWIM. Photo by M. Benner. Acknowledgements. National Weather Center Contributions

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2010 Phased-Array Radar Innovative Sensing Experiment

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2010 phased array radar innovative sensing experiment

2010 Phased-Array Radar Innovative Sensing Experiment

Photo by Adam Smith

Photo by James Murnan

Pam HeinselmanNSSL

Sebastian TorresNSSL and CIMMS

Daphne LaDueOU/CAPS

Heather Lazrus SSWIM

Photo by M. Benner


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • National Weather Center Contributions

    • Signal processing techniques and software development

      • Ric Adams, Chris Curtis, Eddie Forren, Igor Ivic, Dave Priegnitz, John Thomson, David Warde (NSSL/CIMMS)

    • WARNGEN for WDSS-II

      • Charles Kerr & Kurt Hondl (NSSL/CIMMS)

      • David Andra and other fcsters at Norman WFO

    • WES cases

      • Mark Sessing, Darrel Kingfield, & Ben Baranowski (WDTB)

    • Playback Simulations

      • Kevin Manross (NSSL/CIMMS)

    • Experimental Warning Program Logistics

      • Greg Stumpf and Travis Smith (NSSL/CIMMS and MDL)


What s unique to par

What’s Unique to PAR?

Parabolic Antenna

Single radiation element

Single transmitter

Single receiver

Non-conformal

Fixed beam pattern

Mechanical steering

Phased Array Antenna

Multiple radiation elements

Multiple transmitters

Multiple receivers

Conformal

Variable beam pattern

Electronic steering

Unique Capabilities


Par electronic beam steering

PAR  Electronic Beam Steering

Want fields to interfere constructively in desired directions, and interfere destructively in the remaining space

Scan To 30 deg

BeamPerpendicular

to the Array

Adapted from Jeff Herd, MIT LL


Why a par at nssl

Why a PAR at NSSL?

The WSR-88D (NEXRAD) is ~20 years old

End of life around the year 2020

Investigating replacement technology

Affordability of new technology vs. operating costs for obsolete technology

Improved weather surveillance capabilities

e.g., faster updates

Combine weather and aircraft surveillance networks

Reduce number of radars

Reduce maintenance costs

+

The MPAR Concept


Multi function par concept

Multi-function PAR Concept

Long-Range Surveillance

Non-Cooperative Targets

Severe Weather

Weather Fronts

WMD Cloud

Terminal Surveillance


What is the nwrt par

What is the NWRT PAR?

National Weather Radar Testbed Phased-Array Radar

+

=

Partnership

SPY-1A Antenna

Photo by A. Zahrai

U.S. Navy

Government

Academia

Private Industry

NWRT PAR


Purpose of the nwrt par

Purpose of the NWRT PAR

Which type of scanning improvement do forecasters consider most important?

Stakeholders’ needs:Faster Updates

Why are faster updates needed?

  • Tornado cyclone and mesocyclone evolution can occur in 10s of seconds

  • Significant storm evolution and transition between storm types can occur between WSR-88D scans

  • Mid and upper-level signatures indicative of downbursts are not reliably detected

62%

Source: Radar Operations Center

Source: LaDue et al. 2010, in press (BAMS)

Determine how to best capitalize on PAR capabilities to address 21st century forecast and warning needs


Future par design

Future PAR Design?

What we have now

Ultimate Goal


Nwrt par characteristics

NWRT PAR Characteristics

Beam Width

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

1.5

1.5

Characteristics Different from WSR-88D

Sector Scans

Polarization

10 km

90

90

Characteristics Similar to WSR-88D

Wavelength: PAR = 9.4 cm / WSR-88D = ~10 cm (S-band)

Range Resolution: PAR = 240 km / WSR-88D = 250 km


Signal processing upgrades

Signal Processing Upgrades

  • Data Quality: brings performance closer to that of operational radars

    • Artifact removal

      • Ground clutter, interference, DC bias, point targets

    • Range and velocity ambiguity mitigation

    • Calibration

  • Evolutionary: demonstrates PAR technology for weather applications

    • Faster updates

      • Range oversampling

      • Adaptive scanning

Photo by M. Benner


Interference filters

Interference Filters

Filters OFF

Filters ON

NWRT

1 May 200800:25 UTC


Clean ap cl utter e nvironment an alysis using a daptive p rocessing

CLEAN-APCLutterEnvironment ANalysis Using Adaptive Processing

NWRT10 Feb 09 16:19

NWRT10 Feb 09 16:19

CLEAN-AP is OFF

Are these storms?

CLEAN-AP is ON

AP contamination was removed!

KTLX Reflectivity

All-bins filtering


Range unfolding

Range Unfolding

14


Dynamic prt adjustment via the radar control interface

Dynamic PRT Adjustmentvia the Radar Control Interface

PRT Change


Want faster updates there s no such thing as a free lunch

Want Faster Updates?There’s no such thing as a free lunch

Adaptive Scanning

Range Oversampling

Full Scan

Partial Scan

Full ScanShort Obs. Time

Faster updates

Faster updates

Less coverage

Less accuracy


Range oversampling a signal processing solution

Range OversamplingA Signal Processing Solution

ct /2L

ct /2

ct /2

Traditional Sampling

  • Range oversampling (RO) adds more information without increasing the observation time

    • RO leads to overlapping radar volumes

    • RO results in more accurate estimates and/or faster updates

These are cleverly combined for improved accuracy

Oversampling


Range oversampling performance demonstration

Data collected using same observation time

Range OversamplingPerformance Demonstration

Standard Processing

Range Oversampling Processing

A smoother field is an indication of more accurate data


Electronic adaptive scanning

Electronic Adaptive Scanning

Conventional scanning

Everywhere

Sequential

Adaptive scanning

Areas of interest only

Arbitrary

Courtesy of Chris Curtis

Goal: Faster Updates


What is adapts

What is ADAPTS?

  • Adaptive DSP Algorithm for PAR Timely Scans

    • Beam positions are classified as active or inactive

      • Only activebeam positions are scanned

        • Active beam positions are updated after every scan

        • Full surveillance volume scans are scheduled periodically

ADAPTS determines active beam positions

ADAPTS redetermines active beam positions

EL

EL

EL

EL

EL

EL

tn

tn+3

tn+2

tn+1

Scanning strategy schedule:

SURV

ADAPTS

ADAPTS

ADAPTS

ADAPTS

SURV

ADAPTS

Radar scans full surveillance volume

Radar scans active beam positions

Radar scans active beam positions

Radar scans active beam positions

Radar scans active beam positions

Radar scans active beam positions

tn

tn+1

tn+2

tn+3

Surveillance update time

AZ

AZ

AZ

AZ

AZ

AZ

time


How does adapts work

How does ADAPTS work?

  • Active beam positions meet one or more criteria

    • Elevation angle

    • Continuity and coverage

    • Neighborhood

Real-time display of active beam positions

1st Criterion

2nd Criterion

3rd Criterion

EL

up

down

Z

coverage

continuity

AZ

left

right

Zth

Look around to respond to storm evolution

Range

Determine significant weather signals

Always scan at the lower elevations


Adapts performance qualitative evaluation

ADAPTS PerformanceQualitative Evaluation

ADAPTS is OFF

ADAPTS is ON

09 AUG 2008 – Reflectivity - 8.7 deg


Adapts performance quantitative evaluation

ADAPTS PerformanceQuantitative Evaluation

a)

1.4

1.3

1.2

Temporal Resolution (min)

1.1

1.0

0.9

0040:59

0104:35

0129:24

0154:27

0217:27

b)

Time (UTC)

0040:59

0129:24

0217:27

200 km

150 km

100 km

200 km

150 km

100 km

200 km

150 km

100 km

1 May 2009

Nominal Update Time

Time Savings

ADAPTS Update Times

23


Parise motivation nwrt par has unique capabilities

PARISE: MotivationNWRT PAR has unique capabilities

Research Questions:1) How can technology be used to produced more focused, efficient, and effective weather surveillance?

2) Can improved understanding of storm processes be attained from high-temporal resolution data?

3) What are potential operational impacts of higher temporal resolution data on the warning decision process?

4) What additional warning lead time might be gained?

Photos by James Murnan


Nwrt par more focused efficient effective weather surveillance

NWRT PAR: More focused, efficient, effective weather surveillance?

1)Oversampled VCP

2)Weather-driven ADAPTIVE scanning

 Automated and Manual


What is an oversampled vcp

What is an Oversampled VCP?

Dense Vertical Sampling

Most dense sampling near the ground

Tilts chosen to sample storm extending to 18 km AGL w/in 20 km of the PAR

Optimized when the max height uncertainty (%) is ~same at all ranges and heights of storm features (Brown et al. 2000)

Overlapped Azimuthal Sampling

50% overlapped azimuthal sampling at all tilts to improve the apparent resolution of azimuthal signatures

Data Quality

Number of pulses for reflectivity and velocity estimates meet or exceed VCP 12 standards


Oversampled vcp

Oversampled VCP

Update Time: 2 min

22 tilts; max height uncertainty 18%

Red lines = VCP 12


Weather driven adaptive scanning

Weather-driven Adaptive Scanning

Are storms located only w/in 120 km of NWRT PAR?

No

Yes

Choose uniform-PRT version of Oversampled VCP and run ADAPTSMax Update Time: 1.4 min

Choose split-cut-PRT version of Oversampled VCP and run ADAPTSMax Update Time: 2 min


Weather driven adaptive scanning1

Weather-driven AdaptiveScanning

Are storms located only w/in 120 km of NWRT PAR?

Are storms potentially tornadic?

No

Yes

Are storms located within 120 km of PAR?

Continue to sample as assessed above

No

Yes

Choose 2-tilt, split-cut VCPUpdate Time: 22 sComposite Update Time: 2.7 min

If only located w/in 120 km: Choose 4-tilt, uniform PRT VCPUpdate Time: 18 sComposite Update Time: 2.3 min

Else: Choose 4-tilt, split-cut PRT VCPUpdate Time: 38 sComposite Update Time: 3.3 min


Weather driven adaptive scanning2

Weather-driven AdaptiveScanning


Parise motivation nwrt par has unique capabilities1

PARISE: MotivationNWRT PAR has unique capabilities

Research Questions:1) How can technology be used to produced more focused, efficient, and effective weather surveillance?

2) Can improved understanding of storm processes be attained from high-temporal resolution data?

3) What are potential operational impacts of higher temporal resolution data on the warning decision process?

4) What additional warning lead time might be gained?

Photos by James Murnan


2010 phased array radar innovative sensing experiment

Impacts on warning decision process?

1) How might higher temporal resolution data impact the warning decision process?

2) Will faster data updates increase warning lead time?

How will we answer these questions?

Tuesday Evening and WednesdayFor a variety of playback and real-time (hopefully!) cases, interrogate PAR data and issue warnings as you would in your office.

After each event, discuss your experience in making warning decisions (or not)

Thursday: Impact of Temporal Resolution Experiment

Directly compare how forecasters (you!) issue warnings based on data provided at current radar update rates, with warnings issued based on faster data updates provided by Phased Array Radar (PAR).

James Murnan


2010 phased array radar innovative sensing experiment

Your Goals!

  • Become comfortable using WDSS-II to interrogate storms and issue warnings

  • Issue warnings for 5 playback and/or real-time events

  • Participate in discussions on warning decision experience

Photos by James Murnan


Impact of temporal resolution experiment

Impact of Temporal Resolution Experiment

PurposeDetermine potential operational impact of temporal resolution on warning decision process and warning lead time

  • MethodControl and experiment groups

  • Control: PAR data degraded to WSR-88D update time

  • Experiment: PAR data with full-temporal resolution

  • Matched groups: You help us determine which pairings results in equivalent radar-interpretation skills

34


What you will do during experiment

What you will do during experiment

  • Form two teams

  • Work through two cases

    • Gain situational awareness (WES)

    • Write an Area Forecast Discussion

    • Work through the case in displaced real time

    • Issue warning products as needed

    • Discuss your experience within your team

    • Contrast experiences with other team

  • Break for lunch / work through 2nd case / final debrief to end the day

35


Consent

Consent

  • Read through consent forms

  • Participation

    • Provides first rigorous test of impact of temporal resolution on warning decision process

    • Lasts one 8-hr workday

    • Provides opportunity to learn from each other

    • Is not completely confidential

    • Is not reimbursed above normal compensation

    • Is voluntary

  • Indicate your preference on quotation and recording

36


2010 phased array radar innovative sensing experiment

Today’s Schedule

2:45 Gain experience using Warning Decision Support System – Integrated Information (WDSS-II)

4:00 Tour National Weather Center

5:00 Group Dinner (wx dependent)

6:30 First playback or real-time event

9:00 End of day!

Photos by James Murnan


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