Integrated air quality management at city level
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Integrated Air Quality Management at City Level:. PUNE CITY Srinivas Bonala. City Profile. Population as 2001 census -2.697 Millions Density (persons/ sq km)-10,657 No of Households- 623,056 Average Household size- 4.42 Length of road network- 1000 kms

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Integrated Air Quality Management at City Level:

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Integrated air quality management at city level

Integrated Air Quality Management at City Level:


Srinivas Bonala

City profile

City Profile

  • Population as 2001 census -2.697 Millions

  • Density (persons/ sq km)-10,657

  • No of Households- 623,056

  • Average Household size- 4.42

  • Length of road network- 1000 kms

  • Vehicles regd in PMA (2003)-1.354 Millions (PMC- 1.057 millions & PCMC - 0.297 Millions)

  • Avg. new veh. registrations/day- 400 (app.. 100,000 new per annum)

  • No of PMT buses - 847

City manifests problems such as

City Manifests Problems Such As……

  • increased traffic congestion,

  • reduced driving speed,

  • increased environmental pollution and

  • degradation of quality of life

  • Capacity of many intersections has been exhaustedThe central city is experiencing capacity gaps, parking problems, low-speed travel, increased congestion, environmental pollution leading to worsening air quality.

  • First corporation to prepare esr 1995 96 in india

    First Corporation to Prepare ESR ( 1995 -96) in India

    9th Report Covers Issues Pertaining to……

    • Air quality, land use, health, noise, housing, sanitation, greenery, slums, traffic&transport etc.,

    • It outlines PMC’s priorities for current year

    • Priorities are based on facts & figures, sometimes experiences

    • No emphasis on domestic, agricultural, construction and industrial pollution

    • Inadequate health impact data

    Air quality action plan 2002

    Air Quality Action Plan-2002

    • Court directives to prepare action plan to improve air quality with respect to vehicular pollution (May 2002)

    • Prepared action plan in consultation with RTO and MPCB

    • First attempt was made to estimate vehicular, industrial & domestic pollution

    • Road map on emission norms, fuel quality, steps to curb pollution from vehicles in use and control on registration of certain kind vehicles

    Hindrances faced

    Hindrances Faced….

    • Lack of validated and appropriate data

    • Ad hoc approach to air quality management plan and strategies

    • Multitude of agencies. Lack of effective coordination and communication.

    The pune approach

    The Pune Approach……

    Marching towards science based AQM model

    • Brainstorming workshop on of air quality management held on Sept. 12-13, 2001 in Delhi attended by rep from MoEF, CPCB, State PCBs, academic institutions and USEPA.

    • Pune selected as demo city for undertaking Urban Air Pollution Control Strategy Development by MoEF & USEPA.

    • USAEP is strategic partner to USEPA in implementing this project and work started in Pune in December 2002

    • PMC with facilitation from USAEP made Pune member of CAI-Asia in FY 2003

    • A core-group has been formed consisting of various stakeholders

      Core group has prepared a draft “Air Quality Management Programme

      (AQMP)” with the following building blocks:

    Process for improving air quality

    Process for Improving Air Quality

    New urban air quality management initiative

    New Urban Air Quality Management Initiative

    • Start-to-finish control strategy development project in one city in India

      • 2-3 years duration

      • EPA provides training/assistance

      • Project tasks completed by groups in India

    • Focus on particulate matter (PM-10)

    • Science-based Action Plan to be developed

      Funding and Facilitative support from USEPA and USAEP/USAID to develop and implement the project in Pune

    New urban air quality management initiative1

    New Urban Air Quality Management Initiative

    • Strong training component – training transfer

      • ambient air monitoring (source apportionment and permanent networks)

      • emission inventories (point, area, mobile – IVEM)

      • dispersion modeling

      • control strategy evaluation and selection

      • health impacts assessment

    • Training and field activity

    Activities completed

    Activities Completed

    International Vehicle Emission Model (IVEM)


    • Assisted by University of California – Riverside team

    • IVEM model was based on vehicle technology distribution, driving pattern, time and number of vehicle engine starts for Highway, arterial and residential areas.

    • IVEM Field Study held in Pune, March 2003

      • UCR provided training and assistance

      • Data gathered by Indian groups (Pune Municipal Corporation, ARAI, Univ. of Pune, SIAM, and others)

      • Final report issued June 2003

        Developed most comprehensive mobile source emissions inventory in India to date

    Integrated air quality management at city level

    Block Estimates From The IVEM model

    Comparison daily emission estimates by cirt ivem tonnes day

    Comparison Daily Emission Estimates by CIRT & IVEM (tonnes/day)

    Activities completed1

    Activities Completed

    2 Key Activities – Source Apportionment and

    Ambient Air Monitoring

    • Ambient Monitoring

      • EPA team delivered training, September 2003

      • Strong data analysis emphasis

      • Pune field study, September 2003

    • Source Apportionment

      • Training delivered September 2003

      • Field study scheduled in Feb 2005

    Activities completed2

    Activities Completed

    Air Monitoring Training and Field Study


    Quality assurance project plan.

    • Data quality objectives

    • Sampling and analysis plan.

    • Quality control/assurance

    • Data analysis

      Air Pollution Chemistry:

    • Sample Collection

    • Data analysis.

    • Site visit to monitoring stations.

    Evaluation of 5 monitoring stations in pune by epa team

    Evaluation of 5 Monitoring Stations in Pune by EPA team

    • Relocate 3 samplers from roads & retain two

    • Add at least 1 co-located meteorological station

    • Put all sites on the regular schedules(1-in-3 days or 1-in-6 days)

    • Implement coordinated QA/QC plan

    • Conduct sampler inter-comparison study

    • Modify laboratory / filter- weighing procedures

    • Implement coordinated data analysis program

    Activities completed3

    Activities Completed

    Pune Regional Emission Inventory Study,

    March 16-24 , 2004

    • Diverse team of 40 participants from various governmental and educational institutes participated in the study.

    • This was the first ever attempt to prepare comprehensive emission estimates for Pune region and it is the first of its kind in India.

    • The documentation and results are available on

    Activities planned

    Activities Planned

    Proposed Source Apportionment Project


    • Deploy 12-15 portable battery operated mini Vol samplers at key sites for a 3 weeks period

    • Samplers can be calibrated to monitor PM2.5 and PM10

    • Collect PM samples during high pollution season

    • Conduct basic chemical specification analysis

    • Conduct gravimetric mass PM10 and PM2.5 analysis

    • Analysis performed in US and India

    Activities planned1

    Activities Planned


    • Training module is being developed

    • Focus on dispersion modeling for PM-10

    • Modeling dependent on development of quality inventories

    • Team being assembled from EPA headquarter and Regional staff to support training and field efforts in Pune

    Activities planned2

    Activities Planned

    Control Strategy Development

    • Workshop on control strategy development techniques being developed

      • will discuss how monitoring, emissions inventories, modeling come together

      • will include cost/benefits analysis

      • focus on PM-10 control technologies and evaluation techniques

    • Health Assessment Tools- Jan 2005.

    Other projects of usepa and usaep

    Other Projects of USEPA and USAEP

    • Undertaking demo diesel retrofit project for heavy vehicles

    • Demo project for promoting LPG in Pune

    Expected project outcomes

    Expected Project Outcomes

    • Development of ability to develop science-based action plans – systemic approach

    • Transfer of training modules to India

    • Development of robust air quality assessment tools

    • Create model Action Plan for Pune as example for other cities in India

    Other initiatives

    Other Initiatives…………

    • PMC with facilitation from USAEP made Pune member of CAI-Asia in FY 2003

    • Pune also selected by CAI-Asia to undertake “PSUTA” project

    Other initiatives1

    Other Initiatives…………

    Work Undertaken by PMC and RTO

    • Preparation of ‘Comprehensive traffic and transportation plan’.

    • Area Traffic Control System to be implemented with the help of C-DAC & Dept. of Information & Technology.

    • Road development such as concretization of roads etc.

    • Plans to renew the fleet of buses and introduce LPG buses in the PMT fleet and catalytic converter.

    • Restriction on movement of certain kind of vehicles

    Other initiatives2

    Other Initiatives…………

    • Ban on plying of heavy vehicles in the central area of the city during daytime.( Ban is effective on 17 selected routes)

    • Construction of various projects of fly-overs, ROBs. (Out of 12 earmarked projects, 1 flyover completed, 2 in progress.)

    • Phasing out old municipal transport buses. ( 200 new buses replaced, hiring of 135 buses in progress)

    • Environmental Education program : Awareness program for school children initiated through NGO’s .

    • IRDP (Integrated Road Development Program) and ambitious program of Rs. 10000 Million to develop international standard roads

    • Free pollution check up camps and exhibitions held regularly.

    Other initiatives3

    Other Initiatives…………

    • Study on “Air Quality Monitoring and emission source apportionment studies by IOC and ARAI. Development of emission factors for different transport vehicles.

    • MPCB has undertaken steps for development of action plan as per “Supreme Court” directive for 3 cities in Maharashtra I.e. Mumbai, Pune and Solapur.

    • Awareness campaign by NGO’s.

    • Traffic management measures initiated by Traffic Police Dept.

    This all was not possible without

    This All Was Not Possible Without………

    Effective coordination, support and cooperation of

    local network of stakeholders

    • PMC ( Pune Municipal Corporation)

    • UoP (University of Pune)

    • RTA ( Road Transport Authority)

    • Traffic Police Department.

    • MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board)

    • ARAI ( Automotive Research Association of India)

    • SIAM ( Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers)

    • C-DAC ( Centre for Development in Advanced Computing)

    • MCCIA (Maratha Chambers of Commerce and Industries

    • NGO’s like NIRDHAR

    • IIT, NEERI, Oil Companies

    Local network of stakeholders


    • We have formed local network of stakeholders under the CAI-Asia program with facilitative support from US-AEP/USAID

    • Organized various meetings to prepare the draft “Implementation Plan”.

    • Set up AQM cell in PMC

    Aqm cell and its responsibilities

    AQM Cell and Its responsibilities

    • Develop roadmap for implementation of action plan with assigned responsibilities for the stakeholders.

    • Get the same approved by the stakeholders

    • Coordinate, facilitate and implement the action plan

    • Organize monthly review meetings to brief the stakeholders on the work undertaken and take guidance from them

    • Undertake awareness campaigns and technical training programs on air quality management.

    Sustainability of the cell


    • The cell can generate revenues through organizing various technical training programs

    • But the primary objective of the cell is to develop, facilitate and implement the roadmap to achieve better air quality in Pune, hence

      The Pune Municipal Corporation committed to develop a self sustainable AQM cell in next 5 years.

      US-AEP’s funding support for AQM cell for a year

    Thank you

    Thank You

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