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Department of ECE. Brain Computer Interface. Submitted By: Saurabh Gupta RD6801B44. Brain-Computer Interfaces Past, Present and Future. What is a BCI?.

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Department of ece

Department of ECE

Brain Computer Interface

Submitted By:

Saurabh Gupta


Brain computer interfaces past present and future

Brain-Computer InterfacesPast, Present and Future

What is a bci

What is a BCI?

  • BCIs read electrical signals or other manifestations of brain activity and translate them into a digital form that computers can understand, process, and convert into actions of some kind, such as moving a cursor or turning on a TV.

  • BCI can help people with inabilities to control computers, wheelchairs, televisions, or other

    devices with brain activity.

The 3 major components of bcis

The 3 major components of BCIs

  • Ways of measuring neural signals from the human brain

  • Methods and algorithms for decoding brain states/intentions from these signals and

  • Methodology and algorithms for mapping the decoded brain activity to intended behavior or action.

History discovering the basics

History – Discovering the Basics

  • 1924: Hans Berger discovers the EEG

  • Analyses the interrelation of EEG and brain diseases

  • 1970: First developments to use brain waves as input

  • ARPA has vision of enhanced human

  • First step in the right direction

Historical overview

History monkey first

History - Monkey first …

  • 1990: First successful experiments with monkeys

  • Implanting electrode arrays into monkey brains

  • Recording of monkeys‘ brain waves

  • Offline reproducing of movements

  • 2000: Monkeys control robots by thoughts

Historical overview

History humans follow

History - … Humans follow

  • More non-invasive than invasive approaches

  • Brain reading by eg. EEG, MEG or fMRI

  • 2004: First human benefits from research

  • Matt Nagle is able to control a computer and move a prosthetic hand

Historical overview

Reading the brain

Reading the brain…



Direct Neural Contact

  • Most accurate method

  • Highly invasive

  • Not possible with current technologies

  • Perhaps possible in future with e.g. nanobots

  • Measures electical activity in brain

  • Non-invasive

  • Susceptible to noise

  • Easy to use + low cost + portable

  • Most commonly used device in BCIs

Reading the brain

Invasive versus non invasive bci

Invasive versus Non-invasive BCI

  • Invasive techniques, which implant electrodes directly onto a patient’s brain;

  • Noninvasive techniques, in which medical

    scanning devices or sensors mounted on caps or headbands read brain signals.

Reading the brain1

…Reading the brain

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging




  • Measures magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in brain

  • Non-invasive

  • Very accurate

  • High equiment requirements and maintenance costs

  • Measures blood flow in brain using MRI (haemodynamics)

  • Blood flow correlates to neural activity

  • Studies the brain‘s function

  • Very accurate

  • Very high costs due to MRI

Reading the brain

Direct interfaces via eeg

Direct Interfaces via EEG

  • Required if haptic or linguistic interfaces inoperable (“locked in”)

  • Four typical techniques:

    • VEP

    • P300

    • ERS/ERD

    • SSVEP

Direct Interface Techniques

Vep background

VEP - Background

  • “visual evoked potential”

  • caused by visual stimulation

  • occurs with flashing lights (3 – 6 Hz)

Direct Interface Techniques

Vep application

VEP - Application

  • Checkerboard with 64 fields

    • letters

    • words

  • “Splitting keyboard”

Direct Interface Techniques

P300 background

P300 - Background

  • positive curve on EEG after 300ms

  • relevant & seldom stimulation

  • strongest signal at parietal lobe

Direct Interface Techniques

P300 application

P300 - Application

  • Typing tool with 6x6 fields

  • Letter identification by column, row

  • Consecutive iteration

  • ~ 30 sec / letter

Direct Interface Techniques

Ers erd application

ERS/ERD - Application

  • Event related synchronization / desynchronization

  • Imagined hand/foot movement

  • Cursor movement

  • FES coupling (functional electrical stimulation)

Direct Interface Techniques

Ssvep background

SSVEP - Background

  • steady state visual evoked potential

  • steady amplitude on EEG

  • based on flickering neon tubes

  • amplitude consciously modifiable

    • biofeedback

Direct Interface Techniques

Ssvep example

SSVEP - Example

  • Flight simulator

  • amplitude < threshold: left

  • amplitude > threshold: right

Direct Interface Techniques

Bci applications

BCI Applications…

  • Medical applications:

    • Possibly only communication channel for people suffering from e.g. paraplegia, amyotrophia

    • Neuroprosthetics:

      • Surgically implanted devices used as replacement for damaged neurons

      • Currently available: cochlear implant (bionic ear)

BCI Applications

Bci applications1

…BCI Applications

  • Human enhancement

    • Cyberntic Organisms

    • Brainwave Synchronization

    • Exocortex (intelligence booster)

  • Human manipulation

    • Mind-Control

    • „Neurohacking“: unwanted reading of information from the brain

BCI Applications

Current projects

Current Projects

  • Berlin Brain-Computer-Interface

    • Joint Venture of several German research organisations

    • Supported by the Ministry of Education and Research

  • Graz Brain-Computer-Interface

    • Wide range of research topics

    • Impressive combination of BCI and FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation)


Questions ?

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