Do now: R, S, and T are three species of birds. Species S and T show similar coloration. The enzymes found in species R and T show similarities. Species R and T also exhibit many of the same behavioral patterns. Show the relationship between species R, S, and T by placing the letter representing eac
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1. Topic: Evolutionary Relationships.
2. Do now: R, S, and T are three species of birds. Species S and T show similar coloration. The enzymes found in species R and T show similarities. Species R and T also exhibit many of the same behavioral patterns. Show the relationship between species R, S, and T by placing the letter representing each species at the top of the appropriate branch on the diagram below.
R T S
How can we determine evolutionary relationships among the members of different
11. 1-The study of fossils.
12. How does the study of fossils help us find evolutionary relationships among the members of different species?
Fossils provide scientists with information about the kinds of life that existed many years ago.
13. 2- The study of comparative anatomy.
15. How does the study of comparative anatomy help us find evolutionary relationships among the members of different species?
Comparative anatomy provides scientists with information about the internal structures and functions of body parts in members of different species.
16. 3- The study of comparative embryology.
17. How does the study of comparative embryology help us find evolutionary relationships among the members of different species?
The study of comparative embryology shows a similar pattern of embryonic development in different species.
18. 4- The study of DNA.
19. Scientists have found similar segments of DNA in many different species.
20. 5-The study of proteins.
Scientists have found similar sequence of amino acids in the proteins of members of different species.
23. 6- The study of cells. (Cytology)
24. The study of cells shows strong similarities in the structure and function of cells in members of different species.
25. 7- The study of the evolutionary tree.
26. How does the study of an evolutionary tree help us find evolutionary relationships among the members of different species?
27. The evolutionary tree shows similarities between today’s organisms and the pre-existing ones.
28. How will you identify the organisms that are more closely related?
29. How will you identify organisms that are not closely related?
30. 8- Gel Electrophoresis.
32. Gel Electrophoresis separates and analyzes DNA fragments. This technique uses electricity to form different bands based on their size.
33. 9- Chromatography.
36. This technique separates and analyzes different types of molecules (proteins) in a liquid mixture, forming different bands of colors.
38. Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows an interpretation of relationships based on evolutionary theory. The letters represent different species.
1- Explain why species B and C are more closely related than species A and C are.
2-The diagram indicates that a common ancestor for species C and E is species
(1) F (2) G (3) H (4) K
3- Which species are least likely to be vital parts of a present-day ecosystem?
(1) A and E (2) C and D (3) E and J (4) B and F
39. 4- The diagram below illustrates a proposed evolutionary path of certain organisms, based on the theory of evolution.
Which statement could best be inferred from the information in this diagram?
(1) Evolution does not involve gradual change.
(2) Evolutionary changes can result in extinction.
(3) Evolution begins with plants.
(4) Evolution produces organisms that all fill the same niche.
40. Base your answers to questions 5 through 7 on the diagram below, which represents the relationships between animals in a possible canine family tree, and on your knowledge of biology.
5-According to the diagram, which group of organisms has the most closely related members?
(1) cats, weasels, and wolves
(2) bears, raccoons, and hyena dogs
(3) jackals, foxes, and domestic dogs
(4) African hunting dogs, hyena dogs, and domestic dogs
6- According to the canine family tree, weasels, foxes, and domestic dogs all most likely originated from the
(1) wolf (2) Marctus (3) bear dog (4) Miacis
7- State one valid inference regarding the relationship of bears to other animals in the canine family tree.
42. 8- According to some scientists, patterns of evolution can be illustrated by the diagrams below.
Which statement best explains the patterns seen in these diagrams?
(1) The organisms at the end of each branch can be found in the environment today.
(2) The organisms that are living today have all evolved at the same rate and have undergone the same kinds of changes.
(3) Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out.
(4) These patterns cannot be used to illustrate the evolution of extinct organisms
43. Base your answers to questions 9 and 10 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Letters A through J represent different species of organisms. The vertical distances between the dotted lines represent long periods of time in which major environmental changes occurred.
9- Which species was the first to become extinct?
(1) E (2) J (3) C (4) D
10- Which species appears to have been most successful in surviving changes in the environment over time?
(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) H
44. 11- The diagram below shows the evolution of some different species of flowers.
Which statement about the species is correct?
(1) Species A, B, C, and D came from different ancestors.
(2) Species C evolved from species B.
(3) Species A, B, and C can interbreed successfully.
(4) Species A became extinct.
45. Base your answers to questions 12 through 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Based on their analysis of the differences in amino acid sequences of one kind of protein, scientists prepared the evolutionary tree shown below.
12- According to this diagram, the DNA of which pair of organisms would show the greatest similarity?
(1) penguin and turtle (2) horse and donkey (3) snake and tuna (4) turtle and rabbit
13- According to this diagram, is the pig more closely related to the dog or the kangaroo? Justify your answer.
14- Older systems of classification always placed penguins, chickens, ducks, and pigeons in the bird group and turtles and snakes in the reptile group. Does this diagram support the older system of classification? Explain your answer.
47. 15-According to the diagram below, which three species lived on Earth during the same time period?
robustus, africanus, afarensis
(2) habilis, erectus, afarensis
(3) habilis, robustus, boisei
(4) africanus, boisei, erectus
48. Base your answers to questions 16 through 18 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Letters A through L represent different species of organisms. The arrows represent long periods of geologic time.
16- Which two species are the most closely related?
(1) J and L (2) G and L (3) F and H (4) F and G
17- Which species was best adapted to changes that occurred in its environment over the longest period of time?
(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) J
18-Which two species would most likely show the greatest similarity of DNA and proteins?
(1) B and J (2) G and I (3) J and K (4) F and L
49. 19- The evolutionary pathways of seven living species are shown in the diagram below.
Which two species are likely to have the most similar DNA base sequences?
(1) B and G (2) B and C (3) E and G (4) C and D
20- State one reason for using a new toothpick for the filtrate from each plant.
21- State one way the four strips would most likely be different from each other after being removed from the beakers.
22- State how a comparison of these resulting strips could indicate evolutionary relationships.
51. 23- A classification system is shown in the table below.
52. 24-The data table below shows the number of amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecules of several species compared with amino acids in the hemoglobin of humans.
Based on the information in the data table, write the names of the organisms from the table in their correct positions on the evolutionary tree below. 
25- Explain why comparing the vein patterns of several leaves is a less reliable means of determining the evolutionary relationship between two plants than using gel electrophoresis. 
54. 26- A researcher recently discovered a new species of bacteria in the body of a tubeworm living near a hydrothermal vent. He compared the DNA of this new bacterial species to the DNA of four other species of bacteria. The DNA sequences came from the same part of the bacterial chromosome of all four species.
According to these data, the unknown bacterial species is most closely related to
(1) species I (2) species III (3) species II (4) species IV
27- Which two bears are most closely related? Support your answer with data from the test results. 
28- Identify one additional way to determine the evolutionary relationship of these bears. 
29- Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments on
the basis of their 
.30-Identify one procedure, other than electrophoresis, that is used in the laboratory to separate the different types of molecules in a liquid mixture. 
31-Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments on the basis of their
(1) size (2) color (3) functions (4) chromosomes
56. 32- The chart below contains a number of characteristics for three different organisms. The characteristics can be used in classifying these organisms.
Which two organisms would be expected to have the most similar genetic material?
Support your answer using information from the chart. 
57. 33- The diagram below represents a laboratory apparatus.
This apparatus is used to
(1) identify the molecular bases in DNA (2) detect chemical toxins in the air
(3) stain specimens before observing them with a microscope
(4) separate a mixture of plant pigments
58. Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below that illustrates the results of a laboratory technique and on your knowledge of biology.
34- State one way the information obtained by this technique can be used.
35- The results of which laboratory technique are represented in the diagram?
chromatography (2) manipulation of genes
(3) genetic engineering (4) gel electrophoresis