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Phylogenetics. Chapter 26. Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny. Ontogeny – development from embryo to adult Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a species or group of species Taxonomy – ordered classification of organisms based on a set of characteristics

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Phylogenetics

Phylogenetics

Chapter 26


Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny

  • Ontogeny – development from embryo to adult

  • Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a species or group of species

  • Taxonomy – ordered classification of organisms based on a set of characteristics

  • Systematics – classification of organisms by their evolutionary relationships

    • Basis of phylogeny


Binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature

  • Each species is assigned a 2-word name

    • Developed by C. Linnaeus

  • First word is the genus & second word is species

    • Example: Canisfamiliaris

    • Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)



Homologous structures
Homologous Structures

  • How do we determine phylogenetic relationships?

  • Morphological similarities due to common ancestry

  • Insert diagram of homologous structures


Analogous structures
Analogous Structures

  • Similarities that are NOT due to common ancestry

  • Indicate similar solutions to a common problem

  • Usually due to convergent evolution

    • When 2 organisms develop similarities as they adapted to similar environmental challenges


Molecular systematics
Molecular Systematics

  • DNA or other molecular characteristics are used to determine evolutionary relationships

  • More similar DNA sequences, closer their evolutionary relationship

  • Ribosomal RNA is used for investigating distant relationships (hundreds of millions of years ago)

  • Mitochondrial DNA evolves rapidly

    • Used for investigating recent evolutionary trends


Cladograms
Cladograms

  • Visually depicts a phylogenetic tree between groups

  • Highlights the patterns of shared characteristics

  • Homologous characteristics or molecular similarities

  • Clade

    • Group of species that include an ancestral species and all of its descendents


7 levels of order
7 Levels of Order

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species


Kingdoms or domains
Kingdoms or Domains

  • Old taxonomy

  • Kingdoms –

    • **Monera – Bacteria

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Animalia

    • Plantae


Domains kingdoms
Domains (Kingdoms)

  • In this model, K. Monera is split into 2 kingdoms

  • K. Monera is separated into:

    • Domain Archaebacteria

    • Domain Eubacteria

  • Other Domain: Eukarya

    • Consists of K. Fungi, K. Plantae, K. Animalia

  • Also, much of K. Protista has been classified into 1 of the other 3 kingdoms

    • What are the other 3 kingdoms called?


Prokaryotic domains
Prokaryotic Domains

  • Archea

    • Extremeophiles

    • Halophiles

    • Thermophiles

    • Methanogens

  • Bacteria (Eubacteria)

    • Proteobacteria

    • Gram-Positive

    • Chlamydia

    • Cyanobacteria

    • Spirochetes


Domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya

  • Eukaryotes

  • Superkingdom - incorporates 4 of the kingdoms from the kingdom model

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Plantae

    • Animalia



Questions
Questions

  • In the Kingdom classification, how many kingdoms are there?

  • What are the names of the Kingdoms?

  • In the Domain classification, how many Domains are there and what are they?


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