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Phylogenetics. Chapter 26. Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny. Ontogeny – development from embryo to adult Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a species or group of species Taxonomy – ordered classification of organisms based on a set of characteristics

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phylogenetics

Phylogenetics

Chapter 26

ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny
  • Ontogeny – development from embryo to adult
  • Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a species or group of species
  • Taxonomy – ordered classification of organisms based on a set of characteristics
  • Systematics – classification of organisms by their evolutionary relationships
    • Basis of phylogeny
binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Each species is assigned a 2-word name
    • Developed by C. Linnaeus
  • First word is the genus & second word is species
    • Example: Canisfamiliaris
    • Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)
homologous structures
Homologous Structures
  • How do we determine phylogenetic relationships?
  • Morphological similarities due to common ancestry
  • Insert diagram of homologous structures
analogous structures
Analogous Structures
  • Similarities that are NOT due to common ancestry
  • Indicate similar solutions to a common problem
  • Usually due to convergent evolution
    • When 2 organisms develop similarities as they adapted to similar environmental challenges
molecular systematics
Molecular Systematics
  • DNA or other molecular characteristics are used to determine evolutionary relationships
  • More similar DNA sequences, closer their evolutionary relationship
  • Ribosomal RNA is used for investigating distant relationships (hundreds of millions of years ago)
  • Mitochondrial DNA evolves rapidly
    • Used for investigating recent evolutionary trends
cladograms
Cladograms
  • Visually depicts a phylogenetic tree between groups
  • Highlights the patterns of shared characteristics
  • Homologous characteristics or molecular similarities
  • Clade
    • Group of species that include an ancestral species and all of its descendents
7 levels of order
7 Levels of Order
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
kingdoms or domains
Kingdoms or Domains
  • Old taxonomy
  • Kingdoms –
    • **Monera – Bacteria
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Animalia
    • Plantae
domains kingdoms
Domains (Kingdoms)
  • In this model, K. Monera is split into 2 kingdoms
  • K. Monera is separated into:
    • Domain Archaebacteria
    • Domain Eubacteria
  • Other Domain: Eukarya
    • Consists of K. Fungi, K. Plantae, K. Animalia
  • Also, much of K. Protista has been classified into 1 of the other 3 kingdoms
    • What are the other 3 kingdoms called?
prokaryotic domains
Prokaryotic Domains
  • Archea
    • Extremeophiles
    • Halophiles
    • Thermophiles
    • Methanogens
  • Bacteria (Eubacteria)
    • Proteobacteria
    • Gram-Positive
    • Chlamydia
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Spirochetes
domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya
  • Eukaryotes
  • Superkingdom - incorporates 4 of the kingdoms from the kingdom model
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
questions
Questions
  • In the Kingdom classification, how many kingdoms are there?
  • What are the names of the Kingdoms?
  • In the Domain classification, how many Domains are there and what are they?
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