Replication transcription translation
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Replication Transcription Translation. DNA 1. Double Stranded Helix 2. Hydrogen Bonds between Nitrogenous Base Pairs 3. Adenine-Thymine and Guanine-Cytosine. Gene. A gene is a segment of DNA A gene is a sequence of nucleotides that codes for a functional product (usually a protein)

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Replication Transcription Translation

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Replication transcription translation

Replication Transcription Translation


Replication transcription translation

DNA

1. Double Stranded Helix

2. Hydrogen Bonds between Nitrogenous Base Pairs

3. Adenine-Thymine and Guanine-Cytosine


Replication transcription translation

Gene

  • A gene is a segment of DNA

  • A gene is a sequence of nucleotides that codes for a functional product (usually a protein)

  • 1 gene = 1000’s of base pairs

  • 41000 possibilities of combinations


Replication transcription translation

A Gene is a Segment of DNA

When a gene is expressed, DNA is transcribed to produce RNA and RNA is then translated to produce proteins.


Genotype and phenotype

Genotype and Phenotype

  • Genotype

    1. Genetic Composition of an Organism

    2. Represents the Potential Properties

  • Phenotype

    1. The Expression of the Genes

    2. What You See


Replication

Replication

  • The duplication of DNA which occurs during the S phase of Interphase.

  • 1 Strand  2 Complementary Strands

  • DNA Polymerase


One more time

One More Time!


Replication transcription translation

Hydrogen bond

(H-bonds)

DNA Structure

thymine

adenine

cytosine

guanine

phosphate

deoxyribose sugar

Sugar / phosphate “strand”

Nitrogenous base “rung”

DNA nucleotide

RNA nucleotide

Deoxyribose sugar

ribose sugar

Nitrogenous base

(guanine)

Nitrogenous base

(uracil)

phosphate

phosphate


Replication transcription translation

DNA Replication

Step 1: Hydrogen bonds

between complimentary

bases break

DNA “unzips”


Replication transcription translation

DNA Replication

Step 2: DNA strands

pull apart from each other


Replication transcription translation

DNA Replication

Step 3: DNA nucleotides in the cell

match up with each side of the

“unzipped” DNA

each “unzipped’ strands forms a

template for a new strand


Replication transcription translation

DNA Replication

Step 4: Each “old’ strand

forms a template for a

“new” strand

two identical DNA

molecules form

“new” strand, identical

sequence to the original

“old” (original) strand


Transcription

Transcription

  • The process by which a molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA.

  • 1 Strand DNA  2 Strands RNA

  • RNA Polymerase


Replication transcription translation

DNARNA


Replication transcription translation

Label the Following


One more time1

One More Time!


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

Step 1: Hydrogen bonds

between complimentary

bases break

DNA “unzips”


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

Step 2: DNA strands

pull apart from each other


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

Step 3:

RNA nucleotides in the cell match up with only one side of the

“unzipped” DNA

each “unzipped’ strands forms a template for a mRNA strand

RNA nucleotide


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

Step 4:

RNA nucleotides continue to match up with “unzipped” DNA

until the message

is completely

transcribed

mRNA strand

One side of DNA strand


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

mRNA strand

Step 4:

mRNA strand breaks off from the DNA strand

One side of DNA strand


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

Step 5:

mRNA strand leaves the nucleus for the ribosome


Replication transcription translation

RNA Transcription

Step 6: Once the mRNA

leaves, the DNA “zips”

back together


Translation

Translation

  • The process in which the information in the nucleotide base sequence of mRNA is used to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein.

  • 1 Strand RNA  Amino Acid Chain  Protein


Replication transcription translation

The problem: How does a particular sequence of nucleotides specify a particular sequence of amino acids?

By means of transfer RNA molecules, each specific for one amino acid and for a particular triplet of nucleotides in mRNA called a codon. The family of tRNA molecules enables the codons in a mRNA molecule to be translated into the sequence of amino acids in the protein.


Rna and protein synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis

  • RNA is a Single Stranded Nucleic Acid

  • RNA Acts as a Messenger between DNA and Ribosomes

  • Process Takes Amino Acids and Forms Proteins


Why is it necessary

Why Is It Necessary?

  • DNA / Nucleus

  • Ribosomes / Cytoplasm

  • Need a Messenger


Definitions

Definitions

  • Codon

    1. Three-base segment of mRNA that

    specify amino acids.

    2. Sense Codons

    3. Nonsense Codons

  • Anticodon

    1. Three-base segment of tRNA that

    dock with a codon.

    2. Docking results in deposition of amino acid.


Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

  • Proteins are coded directly from the mRNA with 3 bases (one codon) for each amino acid. What’s up with that?


Mutation

Mutation

  • A change in the nitrogenous base sequence of DNA; that change causes a change in the product coded for by the mutated gene.


Mutations

Mutations

What happens when you get insertions or deletions of bases in the DNA sequence?

Usually you end up with a mess.

THE BIG FAT CAT ATE THE RAT AND GOT ILL

Deletion of one base

THE IGF ATC ATA TET HER ATA NDG OTI LL

And its all pops and buzzes.


Sickle cell anemia

Sickle-Cell Anemia


Definitions1

Definitions

  • Carcinogens

    Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin; may induce cancer or increase its incidence and can affect any cells or tissues

  • Mutagens

    may induce hereditary genetic defects or increase their incidence and effect the germ cells (gonads)

  • Teratogens

    may induce non-hereditary congenital malformations or increase their incidence and effect the growing fetus


Mutagens

Mutagens

  • Tobacco products

  • Nitrous Acid

  • Mold Toxins

  • X-rays

  • Gamma Rays

  • UV Radiation

  • Some Artificial Sweeteners


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