Domestic Sewage. Secondary Sludge Treatment. Industry Waste (pre-treated). Trickling Filter. Filtration. Storm Water Overflow. Alternative Processes. Grit Channel Screening. Primary Sedimentation. Primary Sludge. Activated Sludge. Settlement Tanks. Land Application.
Secondary Sludge Treatment
Industry Waste (pre-treated)
Drying & Dumping
Activated Sludge (AS)
CH4 as Energy
Discharge to Receiving Water
PolybrominatedDiphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
209 BDE congeners
Commercial mixtures used in Electronics, Textiles, Plastics for fire protection
Exposure to humans
Saytex102 DE-79 DE-71
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) interface
Focus point for 21st century pollutants
Toxicity and bioavailability increases
Results and Discussion
Materials and Methods
Dominant congener concentrations in the primary feed of 3 wastewater treatment plants. Residential biosolids are 2-5 times higher in PBDEs than mixed industrial-storm-residential biosolids.
PMF indicates SAYTEX and DE-71 are dominant sources to biosolids. In addition, PMF indicates breakdown of PBDE commercial products prior to entering biosolids treatment
Total PBDE levels in biosolids are 10-1000 times higher than lake sediment samples!
Highly statistically significant increases in lower brominated congener groups relative to BDE-209 in the WGV digestion process. Note log scale on y axis.