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Outdoor and Environmental Studies . UNIT 4 TAYLORS LAKES SECONDARY COLLEGE OUTCOME 1 REVISION 2013. Unit 4- Sustainable Outdoor Environments.

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Outdoor and environmental studies

Outdoor and Environmental Studies

UNIT 4 TAYLORS LAKES SECONDARY COLLEGE

OUTCOME 1 REVISION 2013


Unit 4 sustainable outdoor environments

Unit 4- Sustainable Outdoor Environments

  • In this unit students explore the sustainable use and management of outdoor environments. They examine the contemporary state of environments in Australia, consider the importance of healthy outdoor environments, and examine the issues in relation to the capacity of outdoor environments to support the future needs of the Australian population.


Outcome 1 healthy outdoor environments

Outcome 1- Healthy Outdoor Environments

  • This area of study explores the contemporary state of environments in Australia and the importance of natural environments for individuals and society. Students examine the nature of sustainability and, using key indicators, evaluate the health of outdoor environments. They investigate current and potential impacts of damage to outdoor environments.


Key knowledge

Key Knowledge

  • Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development

  • Indicators of healthy outdoor environments, including:

    • Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil

    • Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species


Key knowledge continued

Key Knowledge Continued…

  • The contemporary state of outdoor environments in Australia, with reference to common themes used in State of the Environment reports.

  • The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.

  • The potential impact on society and outdoor environments of land degradation, introduced species, climate change, urbanisation and other significant threats.


Key skills

Key Skills

  • Plan for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor experiences and analyse relevant information collected during these experiences.

  • Identify definitions of sustainability and analyse the concept of sustainable development.

  • Describe a range of different indicators that can be used to identify healthy outdoor environments.

  • Evaluate the contemporary state of Australian outdoor environments.


Key skills continued

Key Skills Continued…

  • Collect and interpret data on the contemporary state of a particular outdoor environment.

  • Analysethe importance of healthy outdoor environments for individuals and society.

  • Identify and predict the potential impact of significant threats on society and outdoor environments.


Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development

Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development

  • Sustainability- Sustainability is based on a simple principle: Everything that we need for our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment.  Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations.


Definitions

Definitions


Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development continued

Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development continued…

Textbook definition:

“the practice of ensuring and equitable, healthy future for all people and natural environments”

Sustainable Development - Brundtland Commission definition 1987:

"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:

  • the concept ofneeds, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and

  • the idea oflimitationsimposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.“


Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development continued1

Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development continued…

  • Real world example that we studied in class-

    • The Bed Zed Community- UK.

      Sustainable development of the wider Grampians area


Key knowledge1

Key Knowledge

  • Indicators of healthy outdoor environments, including:

    • Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil

    • Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species


Quality and adequacy of water air and soil

Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil

  • Victoria Governments- State of the Environment Report 2008 and 2011.

  • How do we determine the Quality of the environment (Indicators)?

    • Range a of tests to determine quality of environment.

    • Benchmark- compare current to past statistics.

    • Predict the future state of the environment.

  • Quality of water-

    • Types of testing- PH testing, turbidity, salinity, levels of biodiversity- fauna and flora.


Quality and adequacy of water air and soil continued

Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil continued…

  • Quality of air-

    • Type of tests- ozone testing, carbon dioxide, water vapor, visual test.

  • Quality of soil-

    • Type of tests- PH testing, worms, nutrients, levels of topsoil- erosion etc.


Levels of biodiversity pest and introduced species

Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species

  • Biodiversity- is the variety of all life forms on earth - the different plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems of which they are a part.

  • How do we determine the level of Biodiversity of a particular environment?

    • Compare statistics- from past and present

    • Like environment

  • How do we know whether or not the environment is healthy?

    • Testing, comparing, visual etc.


Levels of biodiversity pest and introduced species continued

Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species continued…

  • Pest and introduced species-

    • How do we determine the level (Indicators) of the impact of pest and introduced species.

    • What is the difference between pest and introduced species.


Key knowledge2

Key Knowledge

  • The contemporary state of outdoor environments in Australia, with reference to common themes used in State of the Environment reports.

  • State of Environmental reports-

    • 2011

    • 2008

  • Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report-

    • Biodiversity, Land, Inland waters and Atmosphere.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report

  • Major Themes/Headlines from the State of Environment Report 211-

    • Our environment is a national issue requiring national leadership and action at all levels-

      • Coordination of all government departments.

    • Effective environmental management requires adequate information-

      • Long term studies are required to fully understand the challenges the Australian environment is facing.

    • Earth is warming, and it is likely that we are already seeing the effects of climate change in Australia. As the driest inhabitable continent, Australia is particularly vulnerable to climate change-

      • Change of temperature and rainfall distribution across Australia.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • Early action by Australia to reduce emissions and to deploy targeted adaptation strategies will be less costly than delayed action-

    • Reduction in the level of emissions is required ASAP.

  • Ambient air quality and air pollution management in Australia’s urban centres are generally good, but the impact of urban air quality on health is still a matter of serious concern-

    • Most of Australia’s air is fairly good quality, however near the Urban centres the quality of air is reducing.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued1

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • Pressures of past human activities and recent droughts are affecting our inland water systems.

    • Most Northern and remote areas of Australia remain unaffected by Human Impact.

    • However areas that have been inhabited by humans have been significantly changed e.g. Inland waterways.

  • Meeting our water needs will be a critical challenge.

    • As our population and demand increases so will the demand for water E.g. Desalination Plant, water management etc.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued2

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • Australia’s land environment is threatened by widespread pressures.

    • Invasive species, inappropriate fire patterns and grazing are having a significant impact on much of our land environment.

  • Threats to our soil, including acidification, erosion and the loss of soil carbon, will increasingly affect Australia’s agriculture unless carefully managed.

    • In 2001, it was estimated that soil acidity affected 50 million hectares of surface layers and 23 million hectares of subsoil layers, estimated to cost $1.585 billion per year in lost agricultural production.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued3

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • The overall condition of the Australian marine environment is good, but integrated management will be key to the future conservation of our ocean resources.

  • The ocean climate is changing and we will need to adapt.

    • Increasing sea level, increased incidence and severity of extreme weather events, altered ocean currents, changing patterns of biodiversity, and changing productivity.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued4

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • The Antarctic environment is showing clear signs of climate change, which is likely to have profound effects on Antarctic species and ecosystems.

    • The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is losing ice at its coastal fringes—about 60 billion tonnes each year since 2006.

  • Our unique biodiversity is in decline, and new approaches will be needed to prevent accelerating decline in many species.

    • Australia is identified as one of the world’s ‘megadiverse’ countries. However, there have been major declines in many components of biodiversity since European settlement, and data on pressures suggest that many species continue to decline, despite promising investment to address these pressures.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued5

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • Our unique biodiversity is in decline, and new approaches will be needed to prevent accelerating decline in many species.

  • Australia’s built environment faces many pressures and consumes significant natural resources, although consumption maybe slowing.

    • The majority of Australians (87% in 2006) live in urban areas. An increasing need for urban spaceand buildings, increasing traffic congestion and increasing consumption are affecting the livabilityand environmental efficiency of the built environment.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued6

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • Coastal regions bring together manyof the issues affecting other parts of the environment, and coordinated management will be needed to mitigate pressures.


Major themes from the 2011 state of environment report continued7

Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued…

  • Australians cannot afford to see themselves as separate from the environment.

    • The Australian environment is precious. Our ecosystems, biodiversity and heritage are vulnerable to the choices we make. At the same time, we depend on them for our survival and wellbeing. Our ecosystems, and the biodiversity they support, provide services that are fundamental to human life, such as regulation of the atmosphere, maintenance of soil fertility, food production, filtration of water, and pest control. The major future drivers of change—climate change, population growth, economic development and associated consumption of natural resources, aswell as the pressures that these drivers place on the environment—will need to be managed carefully if our society is to achieve a sustainable relationship with the Australian environment.


Key knowledge3

Key Knowledge

  • The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.

    • How does the Outdoors promote healthy wellbeing for humans?

      • Recreation- Fun and exercise

      • Physical

      • Mental- stress relief and relaxation.

      • Fresh air.

    • Linked to Topic 8- Importance of Healthy Outdoor Environments


Outdoor and environmental studies

The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.

  • Individuals-

    • Places for recreation and adventure.

      • Bushwalking - Organ Pipes NP

      • Camping and Bushwalking - Grampians

      • Canoeing – Murray river

    • Places for inspiration and creativity.

      • Bushwalking - Organ Pipes NP

      • Camping and Bushwalking - Grampians

      • Canoeing – Murray river

    • Education

      • As above


Outdoor and environmental studies

The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society. Continued…

  • Society-

    • Resource-

      • Fossil fuels, food production, primary industries etc.

    • Scientific Research

      • Brisbane Ranges- Impact of Cinnamon Fungus (prevention and or control)- Foot washing stations.

    • Intrinsic values

      • Internal- Wilderness environment that is preserved for future generations.

    • Biodiversity-

      • Brisbane Ranges


Key knowledge4

Key Knowledge

  • The potential impact on society and outdoor environments of land degradation, introduced species, climate change, urbanisation and other significant threats.


L and degradation

Land degradation

  • Habitats being cleared for farming and urban development.

  • Clearing over the last 200 years has also destroyed many species.

  • At least ½ of Victoria’s native vegetation has been cleared.


Introduced species

Introduced species

  • Pest species compete with natural species for food and territory.

  • Some pest species have no predators thus no competition for food or space.

  • At least 90% of Native bush land in Melbourne is effected by weeds.

  • The total cost of pest species in Victoria alone is $900 million per year.


Climate change

Climate change

  • Affects biodiversity as species cannot adapt fast enough for rising temperatures and a change in food source as a result.

  • 12% increase in greenhouse gas emissions since 1990.

  • Australia are the 2nd highest emitters per capita in the world.

  • Since 1961 global average sea level has risen by 10cm. Williamstown has registered 18cm sea level rise over the last 100 years.


Urbanisation

Urbanisation

  • What is urbanisation?

    • Clearing land

    • Building houses, factories, infrastructure etc.

  • What are the major threats of Urbanisation?

    • Land degradation

    • Emissions

    • Extinction of species

    • Habitat loss

    • Population increase


Other major threats

Other Major Threats

  • Unsustainable use of natural resources.

  • Inappropriate fire regimes.

  • Changes to the aquatic environment and water flows.

  • More information on the above threats in Topic 9-Biodiversity.


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