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Trade study training provides a consistent and practical trade study methodology. Trade Study Training Need and Goals. Need Consistent methodologies and practices performing trade studies Pros/cons, advantages/disadvantages, customer/management directed solutions are not trade studies Goals

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Trade study training need and goals l.jpg

Trade study training provides a consistent and practical trade study methodology

Trade Study Training Need and Goals

Need

  • Consistent methodologies and practices performing trade studies

    • Pros/cons, advantages/disadvantages, customer/management directed solutions are not trade studies

      Goals

  • Provide Engineering practitioners pointers for additional information and tools to assist in performing trade studies


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Trade Study Description trade study methodology

  • select the best solution to meet an identified problem within defined constraints

  • Defines a structured analytic framework for evaluating a set of alternative concepts, designs, or components

  • Conducted concurrently with other requirements development and design activities

  • Range from an informal comparison of alternatives to major efforts using sophisticated computer tools for simulation and cost estimation.

?


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Trade study process is from SE Process Manual (SYSENG-100), and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Trade Study Process

Evaluate/Optimize Alternatives

(Trade Studies)

Identify

Conduct

OR

OR

Candidate

Analysis

Alternatives

of Alternatives

Loop

Establish Evaluation

Review/Approve

Define Objective

AND

Criteria and

AND

Analysis Report

for Analysis

Weights

Document

Analysis Results


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  • Stakeholders and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines. can be:

  • Other business disciplines

  • Customer

  • Corporate

  • Yourself

  • Etc.

Define Objective for Analysis

  • Define the objective and purpose of the analysis

  • Determine scope of trade study

    • Determine level of supportinganalyses

    • Determine amount of review and approvals needed

    • Determine level of documentation

  • Obtain approval with stakeholders of the objective and ensure that there is agreement on the purpose and scope of the analysis


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Define Objective for Analysis - Example and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Objective:

Decide where best to eat lunch on a typical workday.

Purpose:

Scope

Be sure to get approval of the purpose and scope of the objective from stakeholders.


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Establish Evaluation Criteria and Weights and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

  • Establish an evaluation criteria and weighting for considering system design alternatives that includes, as a minimum, cost drivers, total ownership and life cycle cost, complexity, technical limitations, environmental impact, system expansion, growth, and risk.

  • Establish an evaluation criteria and weighting that is a tailored version of the standard criteria and weighting

  • Review the evaluation criteria to ensure that they are consistent with the range of alternatives.

Obtain agreement of decision maker on evaluation criteria and weights


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Weighting and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Tailor criteria and weighting as appropriate.

Ensure weighting is normalized, and grading uses the same scale (good=low) and range across criteria.


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Establish Evaluation Criteria and Weights - Example and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

weights

criteria

Most Trade Studies will have items related to Cost, Schedule, and Performance and Risk as part of their evaluation criteria. Refer to SYSENG-100 Appendix E


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Establish Evaluation Criteria and Weights - Example and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Grades for

“Time Required”

0 to 15 minutes Very low impact (1)

15 to 30 minutes Low impact (2)

30 to 45 minutes Medium impact (3)

45 to 60 minutes High impact (4)

Over 60 minutes Very high impact (5)


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Identify Candidate Alternatives and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

  • Generate alternative physical architectures and design solutions.

  • Reject unfeasible alternatives

  • Feedback loop

Option 1

Option 2

.

.

.

Option n


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Identify Candidate Alternatives - Example and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

alternatives

For larger trade studies, it is a good idea to have a formal review of alternatives and criteria before proceeding with the analysis.


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Conduct Analysis of Alternatives and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

  • Develop timelines scenarios for system operation and user interaction for each system design alternative.

  • Allocate key requirements to the hardware and software components for each of the design alternative as a part of the analysis.

  • Analyze all candidate alternatives that have been identified.

  • Analyze the alternatives using a structured decision making technique that is appropriate for the analysis.

  • Use the evaluation criteria and weighting to select the recommended alternative (see example).

  • Determine the alternative representing the “Best Value” for projects that have a CAIV requirement.

  • Evaluate the failure conditions associated with each of the alternatives.

  • Perform a sensitivity analysis to determine if any factors inordinately dominate the selection outcome


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Conduct Analysis of Alternatives - Example 1 and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Example:

Timeline Analysis

Use analysis techniques such as timeline analysis, CAIV, analysis of possible failure conditions, etc.


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Conduct Analysis of Alternatives - Example 2 and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Another Example:

Data Gathering

McDonald’s Web Site


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Conduct Analysis of Alternatives - Example 3 and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Apply weights to grades

to find optimum alternative

Multiply weight

times grade,

and sum across

all criteria, i.e.

.3(1)+.3(1)+.3(1)+.1(3)

=1.2


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Document Analysis Results and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

The report contains the following:

  • Document the rationale for the analysis decisions.

  • Document the decision making technique used for the analysis and the rationale for its selection.

  • Document the rationale for the selection of the evaluation criteria and weighting for the analysis.

  • Document alternatives considered and the rationale for not selecting them as the recommended alternative.

It is recommend to produce the document incrementally in parallel with the process


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Document Analysis Results - Styleguide and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

1 Introduction

2 Applicable Documents

3 Trade Study Analysis

3.1 Trade Study Objective

3.2 Requirements, Constraints, and Assumptions

3.3 Evaluation Criteria, Grading, Weighting and Scoring

3.4 Definition of Alternatives

3.5 Analysis of Alternatives

3.6 Summary of Analysis

4 Conclusions and Recommendations


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Document Analysis Results - Example and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

Trade Study Report


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Review/Approve Analysis Report and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

  • Review the candidate alternatives to ensure that the appropriate alternatives have been analyzed. If all appropriate alternatives have not been analyzed, then the analysis of alternatives needs to be continued

  • Review the assumptions to ensure that they are reasonable and valid for the alternatives being considered.

  • Review the selected alternative to ensure it is the best solution based on the evaluation criteria and weighting.

  • Involve effected disciplines in the review and approval of the recommended alternative.

  • Obtain the appropriate approval for the recommended alternative.

  • Communicate the analysis results to the affected parties.

  • Capture the analysis information in an analysis report and obtain approval in accordance with ETR process, and the project data and configuration management activities.


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Review/Approve Analysis Report - Example and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

CM

DM


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When to Conduct a Trade Study and will be adopted by all Engineering disciplines.

  • Conducting a Trade Study takes time and resources. Programs shall establish specific guidelines as to when a Trade Study should be conducted. The guidelines are documented within a Program or Project’s Plan.

  • Trade Studies are usually conducted to help understand competing solutions and to select the most optimal solution. Trade Studies are usually conducted for items significantly impacting:

    • Cost

    • Schedule

    • High Risk Items

    • Performance Objectives

    • Architectural Design


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