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Complete Example. A blinking traffic sign No lights on 1 & 2 on 1, 2, 3, & 4 on 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 on (repeat as long as switch is turned on). 3. 4. 1. 5. 2. DANGER MOVE RIGHT. Traffic Sign State Diagram. Switch on. Switch off. State bit S 1. State bit S 0. Outputs.

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complete example
Complete Example
  • A blinking traffic sign
    • No lights on
    • 1 & 2 on
    • 1, 2, 3, & 4 on
    • 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 on
    • (repeat as long as switchis turned on)

3

4

1

5

2

DANGERMOVERIGHT

traffic sign state diagram
Traffic Sign State Diagram

Switch on

Switch off

State bit S1

State bit S0

Outputs

Transition on each clock cycle.

traffic sign truth tables
Traffic Sign Truth Tables

Outputs

(depend only on state: S1S0)

Next State: S1’S0’(depend on state and input)

Switch

Lights 1 and 2

Lights 3 and 4

Light 5

Whenever In=0, next state is 00.

traffic sign logic
Traffic Sign Logic

Master-slaveflipflop

controller data path
Controller + Data Path
  • Sometimes there are lots and lots of states, but a fairly simple way to move between states.
  • We can separate the data being transformedfrom the state machine that\'s controlling the transform.

State Machine

Combinational

Logic Circuit

Storage

Elements

Controller

+

Data Path

from logic to computer data path
From Logic to Computer Data Path
  • The data path of a computer is all the logic used toprocess information.
    • See the data path of the LC-3 on next slide.
  • Combinational Logic
    • Decoders -- convert instructions into control signals, access memory
    • Multiplexers – select inputs and outputs
    • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) – performs operations on data
  • Sequential Logic
    • State machine -- coordinate control signals and data movement
    • Registers and latches -- storage elements
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