Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases
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Pharmacotherapy : The main effects of drugs on different diseases Pharmacodynamic : The effects of drugs on living system Pharmacokinetic : The fate of drugs in living system Pharmacognosy : Natural sources of drugs

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Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • Pharmacotherapy : The main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • Pharmacodynamic : The effects of drugs on living system

  • Pharmacokinetic : The fate of drugs in living system

  • Pharmacognosy : Natural sources of drugs

  • Pharmacogenetic : Different responses to drugs because of genetic variations


Pharmacokinetic

Pharmacokinetic

ADME:Absorption,Distribution,Metabolism,

Excretion

ADME will be changed by Pregnancy

Therapeutic index = LETHAL DOSE / THERAPEUTIC DOSE

TI of Digoxin,Warfarin and Lithium is very small

So they are very Dangerous


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

Pharmaceutic : Disintegration and Solubility

Elixir > Suspension > Cap > Tab > Matrix tab > Enteric coated

Pharmacokinetic

Absorption , Distribution , Metabolism ,Excretion ADME

Absorption from intestine > Skin

Absorption from sublingual > subdermal

Non ionized > Ionized

Route of dug administration :

Enteral : Gastrointestinal tract

Parenteral : Subcutaneous, Intramuscular,Intravenous,Intrathecal

Pulmonary

Topical


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • Distribution

  • Plasma protein : Albumin , sulfunamide

  • Binding : Warfain 99%,Cimetidine 20%

  • Competition : Aspirin and Warfarin ( Bleeding )

  • Hypoproteinemia : Liver failure

  • Adipose tissue : Accumulation ( Thiopental )

  • Bone : Tetracycline ( Browning of the teeth )

  • Blood brain barrier : Anesthetics

  • Placental barrier : Anesthetics , Steroids

  • Bioavailabiliy : Intravenous dose / Administered dose


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • Excretion:

  • Kidney : Ionized drugs > non ionized drugs

  • Alkalinization ( Phenobarbital ) Bicarbonate

  • Acidification ( Amphetamine ) Vitamin C

  • G.I.Tract : Morphine

  • Lungs : Anesthetics

  • Saliva : Dermatitis ( some intravenous drugs )

  • Mammilary glands : pH= 6.5 Morphine


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • Affinity: Drug binding to its receptor

  • Efficacy: Effects after drug binding

  • Potency : Capability of drugs in similar doses Lid4 Pril 1

  • Physiologic Ant: two receptors Histamine,Salbutamol

  • Pharmacologic Ant: one receptor acetylcholine,Atropine

  • Chemical Ant : Without recepterFe,desferoxamine

  • Competetive Ant: Acetylcholine,Atropine

  • Non competetive Ant : Phanoxybenzamine

  • Partial agonists : Their efficacy is less than full agonist

  • Loading dose = Volume of distribtion×Total concenration

  • Therapeutic index= LD 50 / ED50 Digoxin


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • Predictable adverse effects

  • Age : Infants and old patients , Chloramphenicol

  • Body mass : Infants ( per KG )

  • Sex : Fat and water ratio ( male and female )

  • Time of administration : With meal Aspirin

  • Idiosyncrasy: unusal responses to drugs

  • Tolerance : Disappearance of effect Morphine

  • Tachyphylaxis : Rapid tolerance Local anesthetics

  • Dependence : Physical,Psychological Morphine


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

Tincture : Preserved from light , Belladona

Syrup : Sweet, Hydroxyzine

Elixir : Addition of some materials,Acetaminophen

Suspension : Shaking before using,Furazolidone

Lotion:With alchohol,Kalamine

Ointment : Semisolid shape ,

Cream : With water ,

Pill,Dragee : Unfavorable pills

Ovule : Vaginal , Clotrimazole

Suppository : Indomethacin


Pharmacotherapy the main effects of drugs on different diseases

  • bid bis in dis

  • dc Discontinue

  • gtt gutta

  • KVO KeepVein 0pen

  • NS normal saline

  • OTC over-the-counter

  • Prn pro re nata

  • qd quaue die

  • qid quarter in qie


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