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Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drugs. Lesson 6. ESSENTIAL STANDARD/OBJECTIVE: 9.ATOD.1.4- Summarize the risks of IV drug use, including blood borne diseases. BENCHMARK: 9ATOD.1.4 Explain 3 effects of IV drug use and identify 1 relationship to contracting HIV/AIDS

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Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drugs

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Alcohol tobacco other drugs

Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drugs

Lesson 6

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Warm up

  • ESSENTIAL STANDARD/OBJECTIVE:9.ATOD.1.4- Summarize the risks of IV drug use, including blood borne diseases.

  • BENCHMARK:9ATOD.1.4 Explain 3 effects of IV drug use and identify 1 relationship to contracting HIV/AIDS

  • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: What are the risks associated with IV drug use? What drugs are considered to be IV drugs and what are their effects on drug users?

Warm Up

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Warm up continued

Warm Up Continued

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Alcohol tobacco other drugs

Your Brain on Drugs

1-2 Min

3-4

5-6

6-7

7-8

8-9

9-10

10-20

20-30

Photo courtesy of Nora Volkow, Ph.D. Mapping cocaine binding sites in human and baboon brain in vivo. Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wolf AP, Dewey SL, Schlyer DJ, Macgregor RIR, Hitzemann R, Logan J, Bendreim B, Gatley ST. et al. Synapse 1989;4(4):371-377.

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Alcohol tobacco other drugs

Your Brain After Drugs

Normal

Cocaine Abuser (10 days)

Cocaine Abuser (100 days)

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School

Photo courtesy of Nora Volkow, Ph.D. Volkow ND, Hitzemann R, Wang C-I, Fowler IS, Wolf AP, Dewey SL. Long-term frontal brain metabolic changes in cocaine abusers. Synapse 11:184-190, 1992; Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang G-J, Hitzemann R, Logan J, Schlyer D, Dewey 5, Wolf AP. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers. Synapse 14:169-177, 1993.


Have you changed your mind

  • The picture on the left is of someone who has never used cocaine.

  • The picture on the right is of a cocaine addict.

Have You Changed Your Mind?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Key terms

  • IV Drugs- the process of injecting drugs directly into a patient's vein.

  • Blood Borne- means able to be spread in the blood.

Key Terms

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Chemical neurotransmission

chemical neurotransmission

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Chemical neurotransmission1

  • Communication of information between neurons is accomplished by movement of chemicals across a small gap called the synapse.

  • Chemicals, called neurotransmitters, are released from one neuron at the presynaptic nerve terminal.

  • Neurotransmitters then cross the synapse where they may be accepted by the next neuron at a specialized site called a receptor.

chemical neurotransmission

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Dopamine neurotransmission

Dopamine & Neurotransmission

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Dopamine cocaine

Dopamine & Cocaine

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Dopamine opiates

Dopamine & Opiates

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Dopamine marijuana

Dopamine & Marijuana

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Sections taken from the neocortex of monkeys that were given ecstasy twice a day for 4 days

sections taken from the neocortex of monkeys that were given ecstasy twice a day for 4 days

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


What are hiv and aids

  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

  • AIDS is a disease of the immune system that has treatment options, but no cure, at the present time.

  • Most people just say “HIV/AIDS” when they are talking about either the virus (HIV) or the disease it causes (AIDS).

What Are HIV and AIDS?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Hiv aids

  • HIV is a blood-borne virus. That means it can spread when the blood or bodily fluids of someone who’s infected comes in contact with the blood, broken skin, or mucous membranes of an uninfected person.

  • Sharing needles or other equipment used for injection drug use and engaging in risky sexual behaviors are the two main ways that HIV is spread.

  • Infected pregnant women also can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding.

HIV/AIDS

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Hiv aids continued

  • HIV destroys certain cells, called CD4+ cells, in the immune system—that’s the body’s disease fighting department.

  • Without these cells, a person with HIV can’t fight off germs and diseases. In fact, loss of these cells in people with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS.

  • Because of their weakened immune system, people with AIDS often develop infections of the lungs, brain, eyes, and other organs, and many suffer dangerous weight loss, diarrhea, and a type of cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma.

HIV/AIDS Continued

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


What does it mean

  • The good news is that HIV isn’t the death sentence it was when the epidemic began, thanks in large part to a treatment called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy).

  • HAART is a combination of three or more antiretroviral medications that can hold back the virus and prevent or decrease symptoms of illness.

What does it mean?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


How are drug abuse and hiv related

  • Drug abuse and addiction have been closely linked with HIV/AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic.

  • Although injection drug use is well known in this regard, the role that non-injection drug abuse plays more generally in the spread of HIV is less recognized.

How Are Drug Abuse and HIV Related?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Injection drug use

  • People typically associate drug abuse and HIV/AIDS with injection drug use and needle sharing.

  • Injection drug use refers to when a drug is injected into a tissue or vein with a needle.

  • When injection drug users share “equipment”—such as needles, syringes, and other drug injection paraphernalia—HIV can be transmitted between users.

  • Other infections—such as hepatitis C—can also be spread this way.

  • Hepatitis C can cause liver disease and permanent liver damage.

Injection drug use

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Poor judgment and risky behavior

  • Drug abuse by any method (not just injection) can put a person at risk for contracting HIV.

  • Drug and alcohol intoxication affect the way a person makes decisions and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which puts them at risk for getting HIV or transmitting it to someone else.

Poor judgment and risky behavior

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Biological effects of drugs

  • Drug abuse and addiction can worsen the progression of HIV and its consequences, especially in the brain.

  • For example, research has shown that HIV causes more harm to nerve cells in the brain and greater cognitive damage among people who abuse methamphetamine than among people with HIV who do not abuse drugs.

  • In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells.

Biological effects of drugs

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Drug abuse treatment

  • Since the late 1980s, researchers have found that if you treat drug abuse you can prevent the spread of HIV.

  • When people who have a drug problem enter treatment, they stop or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices.

  • Drug treatment programs also serve an important role in getting out good information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, providing counseling and testing services, and offering referrals for medical and social services.

Drug abuse treatment

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


How are teens affected

  • Young people are at risk for contracting HIV and developing AIDS.

  • According to CDC, more than 50,000 young people age 13 to 24 in the United States had been diagnosed with AIDS by the end of 2009.

  • In the past, most of those cases were in adolescent males. That ratio is changing as more females become infected.

How Are Teens Affected?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Who is effected

  • In youth, as in adults, some populations are disproportionately affected.

  • That means that some populations are more affected than others.

  • For example, Blacks/African Americans age 13 to 19 represent only 17 percent of the U.S. teenage population, but accounted for more than 70 percent of the HIV infections among people age 13 to 19 in 2009.

  • The reasons for this gap aren’t completely understood; in fact, Black/African American youth have lower rates of drug abuse than Whites and Hispanics.

Who is effected?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Am i safe

  • In general, middle and late adolescence is a time when young people engage in risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors that may put them in jeopardy of contracting HIV.

  • Regardless of whether a young person takes drugs, unsafe sexual practices increase a person's risk of contracting HIV.

  • Drugs and alcohol can increase the chances of unsafe behavior by altering judgment and decision making.

Am I safe?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


How can teens protect themselves

  • The best way to protect yourself is to stay healthy and think clearly.

  • Choose not to use drugs. Know that drug use can change the way the brain functions, thereby affecting the way people make decisions and weigh risks.

How Can Teens Protect Themselves?

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Assignment

  • Use paper provided by teacher to make a fortune teller.

  • On the four outside squares list three activities you enjoy doing outside of school and one school related activity

  • On the eight triangles inside the fortune teller write the following: LSD, Heroin, Ecstasy, PCP, Cocaine, Methamphetamines, Opium & Risks of HIV/AIDS

  • You will walk around to 4 stations to gather information.

Assignment

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Assignment continued

  • Collect the following information about each of the drugs

    • How the drug is used

    • 2 side effects of drug

    • HIV/AIDS

      • 3 risks associated with drugs and HIV/AIDS

  • You will write the collected information on the inside flap on your fortune teller.

Assignment Continued

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


Ticket out the door

  • Using information you collected in class today, create a 8 questions crossword puzzle. (This would be one question about each drug researched).

Ticket Out the Door

Created by Amy Prior Harding University High School


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