Chapter 6. New Order in Science and Politics . Scientific Revolution. Cosmology Theory of the order of the universe Isaac Newton, Principa Mathematica, 1687. Geocentric Theory. The Earth was the centre of the universe. Accepted thought for years. Heliocentric Theory.
New Order in Science and Politics
Nicolas Copernicus, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies, 1543
Johannes Kepler, Three Laws of Planetary Motion
Incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason.
Impact of Newton- to describe something mathematically was thought to get at its reality; quantitative explanations came to be trusted not only for their accuracy, but as a reflection of reality.
Tabula rasa (the mind is a blank slate)
Gain knowledge through experience rather than reason.
Progress is in our own hands.
Louis XIV, 1643-1715
‘The Sun King’
Ruled by divine right
Creates intendants-civil servants that collected taxes. Status and position determined by the King. Funds go towards his military and state objectives.
‘I am the state’
Hobbes- On the State of Nature:
“No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all continual fear, and the danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”
Individuals have right to overthrow Gov’t which destroys liberty