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TURNING POINT OF THE 20 TH CENTURY. WORLD WAR II. NATIONAL MYTHS AND THE WORLD WAR II EXPERIENCE. Each European nation has its own myths regarding WWII…. Ussr/russia. “THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR…”. For the USSR, World War II was the seminal event. Validated Communism and Stalin

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Turning point of the 20 th century

TURNING POINT OF THE 20TH CENTURY

WORLD WAR II


National myths and the world war ii experience
NATIONAL MYTHS AND THE WORLD WAR II EXPERIENCE

  • Each European nation has its own myths regarding WWII…


Ussr russia
Ussr/russia

“THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR…”



Stalinism the soviet 1930 s
Stalinism: the Soviet 1930’s

  • small peasant farms→huge collective farms

  • small industries→heavy industries

    →political terror

    →major military power

    Ideology was key

    Religion ruthlessly suppressed…cathedrals destroyed


Five year plans
FIVE YEAR PLANS

  • Central government

    planners set goals -

    Soviet industry

    almost catches up to

    rest of Europe in less

    than 15 years

    Right: Happy Peasants



Famine in ukraine see dbqs
Famine in Ukraine – See DBQs

  • HARVESTS FAIL IN 1932-33


Eliminating the kulaks
ELIMINATING THE KULAKS

  • Kulaks were prosperous peasants, who sometimes lent money and seed to other peasants

  • Accused of sabotage

  • Stalin launches a class war


Socialist realism
Socialist Realism

  • ART MUST PROMOTE

    THE GOALS OF THEREVOLUTION.



The terror of the 1930 s
The Terror of the 1930’s

  • Show trials

  • Forced labor in the gulag

  • Purges:

    • Red Army marshals and generals decimated in 1937-1938


The gulag
THE GULAG

  • WORK CAMPS FOR DISSENTERS OR ANYONE ACCUSED BY PARTY

  • MOSTLY IN SIBERIA – MASSIVE PROJECTS BUILT BY SLAVE LABOR


Purges
PURGES

  • STALIN REMOVED ANYONE HE PERCEIVED AS A THREAT

  • EVENTUALLY, ALMOST ALL THE “OLD BOLSHEVIKS” OF THE REVOLUTION WERE REPLACED BY “LITTLE STALINS”



Stalin and hitler
STALIN AND HITLER

  • HITLER DETESTS COMMUNISM

  • Nonaggression Pact signed 1939

  • Stalin cooperates in Hitler’s invasion of Poland, grabs territory.


June 22 1941 germany invades
JUNE 22, 1941Germany Invades


What did stalin do in the first few days
What did Stalin do in the first few days?

  • Hid in the Kremlin…

  • 3 July: radio address by Stalin…

  • “Forward to victory.”


Lend lease
Lend Lease

  • US aided its allies with war materials, such as ammunition, tanks, airplanes, and trucks, and with food etc.


Nameless @ leningrad
Nameless @ Leningrad

  • 670,000 died and are buried in mass graves…

  • Soviet citizens paid a hefty price for following Stalin’s order that no one flee a city under siege or retreat from battle


The war was decided
THE WAR WAS DECIDED

  • By the end of 1941, the Germans had lost the war

    • Failure of Nazis to take Moscow – Hitler suffers his 1st defeat against the Russians who were ordered not to retreat

    • US entry into the war


1944 1945 normandy to germany
1944-1945…Normandy to Germany

  • Race for Berlin began

  • Realization that where the lines were when the war ended would determine post war governments

  • First post-war conference Yalta…January 1945



THE RUSSIANS WON THE SECOND WORLD WAR AIDED BY BRITISH STUBBORNESS AND AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY….

Jay Winter, Yale


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