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TURNING POINT OF THE 20 TH CENTURY. WORLD WAR II. NATIONAL MYTHS AND THE WORLD WAR II EXPERIENCE. Each European nation has its own myths regarding WWII…. Ussr/russia. “THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR…”. For the USSR, World War II was the seminal event. Validated Communism and Stalin

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national myths and the world war ii experience
NATIONAL MYTHS AND THE WORLD WAR II EXPERIENCE
  • Each European nation has its own myths regarding WWII…
ussr russia
Ussr/russia

“THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR…”

slide4

For the USSR, World War II was the seminal event.

  • Validated Communism and Stalin
  • Made Russia one of the two superpowers.
stalinism the soviet 1930 s
Stalinism: the Soviet 1930’s
  • small peasant farms→huge collective farms
  • small industries→heavy industries

→political terror

→major military power

Ideology was key

Religion ruthlessly suppressed…cathedrals destroyed

five year plans
FIVE YEAR PLANS
  • Central government

planners set goals -

Soviet industry

almost catches up to

rest of Europe in less

than 15 years

Right: Happy Peasants

famine in ukraine see dbqs
Famine in Ukraine – See DBQs
  • HARVESTS FAIL IN 1932-33
eliminating the kulaks
ELIMINATING THE KULAKS
  • Kulaks were prosperous peasants, who sometimes lent money and seed to other peasants
  • Accused of sabotage
  • Stalin launches a class war
socialist realism
Socialist Realism
  • ART MUST PROMOTE

THE GOALS OF THEREVOLUTION.

the terror of the 1930 s
The Terror of the 1930’s
  • Show trials
  • Forced labor in the gulag
  • Purges:
    • Red Army marshals and generals decimated in 1937-1938
the gulag
THE GULAG
  • WORK CAMPS FOR DISSENTERS OR ANYONE ACCUSED BY PARTY
  • MOSTLY IN SIBERIA – MASSIVE PROJECTS BUILT BY SLAVE LABOR
purges
PURGES
  • STALIN REMOVED ANYONE HE PERCEIVED AS A THREAT
  • EVENTUALLY, ALMOST ALL THE “OLD BOLSHEVIKS” OF THE REVOLUTION WERE REPLACED BY “LITTLE STALINS”
stalin and hitler
STALIN AND HITLER
  • HITLER DETESTS COMMUNISM
  • Nonaggression Pact signed 1939
  • Stalin cooperates in Hitler’s invasion of Poland, grabs territory.
what did stalin do in the first few days
What did Stalin do in the first few days?
  • Hid in the Kremlin…
  • 3 July: radio address by Stalin…
  • “Forward to victory.”
lend lease
Lend Lease
  • US aided its allies with war materials, such as ammunition, tanks, airplanes, and trucks, and with food etc.
nameless @ leningrad
Nameless @ Leningrad
  • 670,000 died and are buried in mass graves…
  • Soviet citizens paid a hefty price for following Stalin’s order that no one flee a city under siege or retreat from battle
the war was decided
THE WAR WAS DECIDED
  • By the end of 1941, the Germans had lost the war
    • Failure of Nazis to take Moscow – Hitler suffers his 1st defeat against the Russians who were ordered not to retreat
    • US entry into the war
1944 1945 normandy to germany
1944-1945…Normandy to Germany
  • Race for Berlin began
  • Realization that where the lines were when the war ended would determine post war governments
  • First post-war conference Yalta…January 1945
slide25

THE RUSSIANS WON THE SECOND WORLD WAR AIDED BY BRITISH STUBBORNESS AND AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY….

Jay Winter, Yale

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