Microanalysis in science and engineering
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Microanalysis in Science and Engineering. Climate Analysis Using Planktonic Foraminifera. Earth Science or Biology. Contact Information. Jenene Kell and Jenny Norris k [email protected] [email protected] Warren County High School. Performance Indicators.

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Microanalysis in science and engineering

Microanalysis in Science and Engineering

Climate Analysis Using Planktonic Foraminifera.

Earth Science or Biology


Contact information

Contact Information

Jenene Kell and Jenny Norris

[email protected]

[email protected]

Warren County High School


Performance indicators

Performance Indicators

  • Earth Science Standard: 4.0 Geologic History Recognize that fossils contained in sedimentary rock provide clues to life forms, changes in those life forms, and environmental changes.

  • Biology Standard: 6.0 Biological Evolution

    Predict how environmental changes will encourage or discourage the formation of a new species or extinction of an existing species, given a written scenario.


Performance indicators1

Performance Indicators

  • Mathematics Curriculum Standards (Statistics)

    Construct and draw inferences from charts, tables, and graphs that summarize data from real-world situations.

  • Mathematics Content Standard 1.0

    Solve multi-step real-world problems involving whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents.


Textbook reference s

Textbook Reference(s)

  • Modern Earth Science. Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston. Austin, 2002. (Chapter 18: A View of the Earth’s Past, pgs. 344-363)

  • Biology: Principles and Explorations. Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston. Austin, 2001. (Chapter 13: The Theory of Evolution, pgs. 274-299)


Materials needed

Materials Needed

  • Graph paper

  • Calculator

  • Mounted slides of microfossils, including forams

  • Compound light microscope


Rubric

CATEGORY

Excellent

Good

Satisfactory

Needs Improvement

Participation

All group members used time well in lab and focused attention on the experiment.

All group members used time pretty well. Stayed focused on the experiment most of the time.

All group members did the lab but did not appear very interested. Focus was lost on several occasions.

Participation was minimal OR some students were hostile about participating.

Calculations

All calculations are shown and the results are correct and labeled appropriately.

Some calculations are shown and the results are correct and labeled appropriately.

Some calculations are shown and the results labeled appropriately.

No calculations are shown OR results are inaccurate or mislabeled.

Drawings/Diagrams

A clear, accurate graph is included and makes the experiment easier to understand. The graph is labeled neatly and accurately.

A clear graph is included and is labeled neatly and accurately.

A graph is included and is labeled.

Needed graph is missing OR is missing important labels.

Summary

Summary describes the skills learned, the information learned and some future applications to real life situations.

Summary describes the information learned and a possible application to a real life situation.

Summary describes the information learned.

No summary is written.

Rubric


Special notes

Special Notes

  • We are assuming that the students have background information regarding fossils and the geologic time scale.

  • The activity included in this lesson deals with Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. Mounted specimens of this microfossil are not required. Any foram slide will be sufficient in order to provide examples to the student.

  • Sediments for this lesson can be collected from the Coon Creek area in Selmer, TN.

  • We expect this lesson to last 1 period (block scheduling).


Title page for classroom

Title Page for Classroom

Climate Analysis

Using

Planktonic Foraminifera


Engagement

Engagement

  • Observe the displayed sediments.

  • Where do you think this sediment was collected?

  • Do you think this sediment contains any fossils?

  • Sieve the sediment.

  • Extract any microfossils found.

  • Examine this specimen under the microscope.


Exploration

Exploration

  • Does anyone remember what the definition of a fossil is?

  • What do you think a microfossil is?

  • Do you think we can find any microfossils in our region?

  • Do you think that there are any living relatives of these microfossils?


Explanation

Explanation

  • The microfossils that we are studying today are called foraminifera or forams. Forams are single-celled amoeboid protists. They are abundant all over the ocean. There are approximately 4,000 species living today. Forty of these species are planktonic (live in the upper water column) and the rest are benthic (found in sea bottom or ground water sediments).


Explanation1

Explanation

  • The foraminiferal test is typically 0.05mm to 0.5mm. Some may be as large as 18cm. They remain single-celled despite possible large sizes.

  • Typical forams may be viewed under a compound light microscope. However, there are defining characteristics of the three main types of forams that are best viewed using an electron microscope.


Explanation2

Explanation

  • Electron microscopy is an imaging technology that uses the properties of electrons rather than light.


Explanation3

Explanation

The electron microscope allows your sample to be magnified up to

100,000 times.


Explanation4

Explanation

  • The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)

    at TTU in Cookeville, TN was used to capture many of the images you’ll see today. A unique property of this microscope is that it allows us to view samples at pressures up to 20 torr and in more natural environments.


Explanation5

Explanation

  • The three main types of forams include:

    1. Hyaline – exhibits a perforated test (shell).


Explanation6

Explanation

2. Agglutinated – exhibits a test composed of small particles that have been “glued” on.


Explanation7

Explanation

3. Porcellaneous – exhibits an imperforated, smooth test that resembles porcelain.


Extension or elaboration

Extension or Elaboration

  • CLIMATE ANALYSIS USING PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA

  • 1) You have been given a series of samples containing planktonic foraminifera representing time from the present to 160,000 years ago. After your analysis of the material, you decide to look at the climatic signal from these samples. You are aware that a particular species of foraminifera, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, is an excellent recorder of water temperature through geologic time. When the earth experiences periods of relatively cold temperatures, ocean waters are cooler and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma forms its test (shell) such that it coils to the left. Alternatively, during periods of relatively warm temperatures when ocean waters are warmer, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma constructs its test with a coiling direction to the right. Therefore, you have separated out the specimens of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from your samples. For each sample you have counted how many of this species coil to the left and how many coil to the right. Your data is recorded in Table 1. Your next step is to calculate the percentage data for each sample. You must calculate percentage data so that your information is not biased by the total amount of foraminifera present in the sample. Complete the worksheet in Table 1 by calculating the total number of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma for each sample and the percentages of right- and left-coiling forms of the species. The first sample is done for you on the worksheet.


Extension or elaboration1

Age (years ago)

Right coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

Left coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

Total number Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

% Right coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

% Left coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

0

230

50

280

82%

18%

10,000

220

75

20,000

70

230

30,000

45

300

40,000

50

302

50,000

65

389

60,000

20

140

70,000

56

287

80,000

63

267

90,000

212

56

100,000

120

23

110,000

87

45

120,000

203

66

130,000

56

205

140,000

45

332

150,000

89

135

160,000

123

166

Extension or Elaboration

Table 1. Coiling Ratios Worksheet


Extension or elaboration2

Extension or Elaboration

  • 2) Next, use graph paper to plot your results. On the vertical axis you should plot the age of the samples with "0" at the top and "-160,000" at the bottom. On the horizontal axis, plot the percentage of right-coilingNeogloboquadrina pachyderma with "0%" on the left side and "100%" on the right side. You should now have a graph representing the climatic signal derived from the coiling ratios of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma.

  • 3) Analyze your graph and make an interpretation of the climatic history on our planet during the last 160,000 years. Describe this history in your lab report and provide evidence for this interpretation.


Evaluation

Evaluation

  • Lab reports over the previous activity will be collected from each group of 3-4 students.

  • Teacher will use the rubric to evaluate student mastery of the performance standards.


End notes

End Notes

  • Fossil records can be excellent indicators of environmental changes that have occurred during Earth’s history.

  • Microscopes, especially electron microscopes, have aided in the study of microfossils.

  • Microfossils can also be used to predict trends in climatic changes of the Earth.


References

References

  • www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Olson2.html

  • www-bprc.mps.ohio-state.edu/foram/whatarefor.htm

  • www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/collections/micro.html


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