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The Use of Flight Simulation to Analyze Aircraft Design and Performance. Douglas L .Wilson – Chief Test Pilot Abraham Gutierrez – Chief Systems Engineer Anh Huy Nguyen – Chief Flight Engineer Advisor – Basil Philip Sponsor: Dr. Ron O. Stearman. Objectives.

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The use of flight simulation to analyze aircraft design and performance l.jpg

The Use of Flight Simulation to Analyze Aircraft Design and Performance

Douglas L .Wilson – Chief Test Pilot

Abraham Gutierrez – Chief Systems Engineer

Anh Huy Nguyen – Chief Flight Engineer

Advisor – Basil Philip

Sponsor: Dr. Ron O. Stearman


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives Performance

  • Look into the background of two crashes

  • Mooney 305-1998

  • Cessna 172H-2000

  • Conduct Several Test

  • Flight Simulator (X-Planes)

  • Real Test (Cessna 172H or similar version)

  • Perform Test Runs

  • Weather Conditions

  • Plane configurations

  • Determine if Phugoid Mode can be Demonstrate

  • Mooney 305

  • Flight Simulator

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Background l.jpg
Background Performance

  • Mooney Rocket 305

    - Engine modification to the Mooney M20K

    - Modified engine caused the aircraft to enter a phugoid mode

  • Cessna 172H

    - Engine Power

  • Flap Settings

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Presentation outline l.jpg

Outline Performance

-Mooney 305

Crash Report

Timeline of the crash

Comparison

305 Rocket Airplane

What is Phugoid Mode?

Phugoid Mode Analysis

Future Work

-Cessna 172H

Cessna specifications

Performance

Weight and Balance

Cessna Crash

NTSB Investigation

Suggested Causes

-Cessna 172H

Flight Testing

Data Conversion

Preliminary Results

Proposed Flight Test

Flight Simulation

Cost Analysis

Time Analysis

Acknowledgements

Presentation Outline

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Crash report l.jpg
Crash Report Performance

  • Crash Report

  • Timeline

  • Comparison

  • 305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Summary

  • Accident

    -In May 5, 1998 the Mooney 305 crashed near Bakersfield, California

    -In the accident the pilot suffer fatal injuries

  • Investigation (2 Reports)

    -The (NTSB) report indicated that pilot exceeded the never to exceed velocity which caused flutter: consequently the airplane suffer severe damage in the airframe.

    -Another (Dr. Stearman) report, indicated that the airplane didn’t exceed the never to exceed velocity but that the flutter was triggered by an overload damage to the horizontal tail brought on by the aircraft maneuvering in an unstable phugoid mode.

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Timeline for the 305 rocket l.jpg
Timeline for the 305 Rocket Performance

Crash Report

  • Timeline

  • Comparison

  • 305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Summary

1

2

19000ft

3

15000ft

2300ft

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Changes l.jpg
Changes Performance

Crash Report

Timeline

  • Comparison

  • 305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Analysis

  • Summary

Specifications Mooney M20KMooney 305

Horsepower 210HP 305HP

Propeller 2 blades 3 blades

Max takeoff weight 2900lbs 3200lbs

Max landing weight 2900lbs 3040lbs

Empty weight 1860lbs 2068lbs

Max. useful load 1040lbs 1132lbs

Stall Speed 60kts 61kts

Service Ceiling 24000ft 24000ft

Max. Level Speed 198kts 240kts

Cruise Speed (kts) 188kts 230kts

Takeoff over 50ft 1500ft 1200ft

obstacle

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


305 rocket airplane l.jpg
305 Rocket Airplane Performance

Crash Report

Timeline

Comparison

  • 305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Analysis

  • Summary

  • Mooney 305

    -The Mooney 305 is a modification of the Mooney M20K. In which 45 percent more horsepower and a new propeller was added to the airframe of the Mooney M20K

    -The Federal Aviation Administration awarded the certificates

  • Mooney 305 Autopilot

    -Insufficient testing

    -The autopilot was not modify

    -If a control system fails during a phugoid mode then accident like the on in Bakersfield can occur.

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


What is phugoid mode l.jpg
What is Phugoid Mode Performance

Crash Report

Timeline

Comparison

305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Analysis

  • Summary

  • Phugoid Mode

    -Is simply an oscillatory mode in the aircraft dynamics which last for a long time compared to other aircraft oscillations.

    For example:

δ

t

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Phugoid analysis l.jpg
Phugoid Analysis Performance

Crash Report

Timeline

Comparison

305 Rocket Airplane

What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Analsis

  • Summary

  • Equation of motion

    -we are going to use the principle of conservation of energy:

  • T+V=K (T=kinetic energy) and (V=potential

  • State variables or inputs x=(v,v’)

  • External Vertical Force U=F

  • State Matrix Equation x’=Ax+Bu

    0 1 0

    x’ = x + F

    -2*g^2/vo^2 0 g/mvo

    5) Output (position,kinetic/potential energy,) Damped or Undamped

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Summary l.jpg
Summary Performance

Crash Report

  • Timeline

  • Comparison

  • 305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Summary

  • Mooney M20K

    -Model of the Mooney 305 in X-plane

    -Flight Simulator

  • Matlab code

    - Matlab program to fix the autopilot of the

    modified Mooney M20k

    -Matlab programs to identify the phugoid mode

    -Matlab program provided for us.

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Summary12 l.jpg
Summary Performance

Crash Report

  • Timeline

  • Comparison

  • 305 Rocket Airplane

  • What is Phugoid Mode?

  • Phugoid Mode

  • Summary

  • Damping Stages

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Cessna 172h specifications l.jpg
Cessna 172H Specifications Performance

  • Cessna specifications

    Timeline of Crash

  • Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

  • Further Investigation

  • Probable Causes

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Timeline of the cessna 172h crash l.jpg

Cessna specifications Performance

  • Timeline of Crash

  • Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

  • Further Investigation

  • Probable Causes

Timeline of the Cessna 172H Crash

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Weights and balances l.jpg
Weights and Balances Performance

Cessna specifications

Timeline of Crash

  • Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

  • Further Investigation

  • Probable Causes

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Performance l.jpg
Performance Performance

Cessna specifications

Timeline of Crash

  • Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

  • Further Investigation

  • Probable Causes

(Cessna Pilot Handbook)

  • Standard atmospheric conditions

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Cessna ntsb findings l.jpg
Cessna NTSB Findings Performance

  • The airplane was found 300 yards southwest of the end of runway 31

  • The engine and nose was found aft in the cabin area

  • Chord-wise crush damage sustained aft to the wing forward spars

  • Propeller blade bent and scratched

  • Left door torn from fuselage

  • Flap actuator was working properly

  • No mechanical malfunction to engine assembly

  • Wing flaps were set at 40 degrees (Manufacturer recommended 0 degree settings for take-off)

Cessna specifications

Timeline of Crash

Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

    Further Investigation

  • ProbableCauses

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Further investigation l.jpg
Further Investigation Performance

Cessna specifications

Timeline of Crash

Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

  • Further Investigation

  • Probable Causes

  • At impact the tachometer was stuck at 1500 RPM

  • If this was the correct engine output, the aircraft would not be able to maintain a climb attitude.

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Probable causes l.jpg
Probable Causes Performance

Cessna specifications

Timeline of Crash

Weights and Balances

  • Performance

  • NTSB Investigation

  • Further Investigation

  • Probable Causes

  • Pilot attempted a touch-and-go landing and left the flaps down at 40 degrees

  • Engine malfunction during take-off that resulted in a partial or total power loss

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Flight testing l.jpg
Flight Testing Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Test SP4-E101

    • February 22, 2004

    • Georgetown Municipal Airport (KGTU)

    • Weather Conditions

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Flight testing21 l.jpg
Flight Testing Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Cessna 739ZY

    • 172 N model

    • 160 HP (O-320 engine)

  • Tests performed

    • 2 weights

    • 2 altitudes

    • 5 flap settings

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Flight Testing Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Cessna 739ZY – Weight 1

A/C empty weight tested 1469.1 lbs

Fuel Capacity (40 gal) 240.0 lbs

Passengers/gear ~400.0 lbs

TOTAL TEST WEIGHT ~2109.1 lbs

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Flight testing23 l.jpg
Flight Testing Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Flight Testing Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Cessna 739ZY – Weight 2

A/C empty weight tested 1469.1 lbs

Fuel (22 gal) 132.0 lbs

Passengers/gear ~615.0 lbs

TOTAL TEST WEIGHT ~2216.1 lbs

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Flight Testing Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Data conversion l.jpg
Data conversion Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Provides for the analysis of the 172 H model

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Preliminary results 172 h conversion l.jpg
Preliminary Results Performance172 H Conversion

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Proposed flight test l.jpg
Proposed Flight Test Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Cessna 172 E model

    • O-300 engine

    • 2300 lb gross take-off weight

    • 42 gal max fuel capacity

    • 40 degree flap settings

    • Cruise prop installed on the A/C

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Flight simulation l.jpg
Flight Simulation Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Mooney Simulations

    • Performed at WRW Laboratories

    • X-Plane software

      • Easy to use

      • Allows for proper data output

    • Autopilot will be engaged

    • Monitor output to determine if phugoid mode is present

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Aircraft modifications l.jpg
Aircraft Modifications Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Flight Simulation Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Presently have 5 test aircraft

    • 172 SP

    • 172 SP – modified for 40 degrees of flaps

    • 172 H – A/C in accident

    • 172 N – A/C in actual flight test

    • 172 E – Proposed test A/C

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Aircraft Modifications Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Flight Simulation Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Cessna Testing – Stage 1

    • Verification flights

    • Repeat previous flight tests

    • Performance tests to compare to manufacturer and actual flight data

    • MOST IMPORTANT PHASE OF TESTING!

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Flight simulation34 l.jpg
Flight Simulation Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Cessna Testing – Stage 2

    • Attempt to recreate the accident

    • Take-offs with 40 degrees of flaps at desired weight

    • Takeoff with engine failure at ~300 feet AGL

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Cost analysis l.jpg
Cost Analysis Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Currently 4.2 hours of real flight testing

    • Aircraft rental: $79/hr - $331.80

    • Instructor fee: $35/hr - $147.00

    • Total current cost: $478.80

  • Projected 5 hours of additional real flight testing

  • Total expenses ~ $1000

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Time analysis l.jpg
Time Analysis Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Phase 1 – Completed

    • Background investigations into both accidents

    • Phugoid mode analysis

    • A/C modifications made in flight simulators

  • Phase 2A – Completion projected March 5

    • Actual flight testing of Cessna A/C

    • Added to validate flight simulator data

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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Time Analysis Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Phase 2B – Completion projected April 10

    • Flight Simulator Testing

      • Validation phase – completion projected March 20

      • Accident Recreation

        • Cessna 172 H

        • Mooney Rocket

  • Phase 3 – Completion projected May 5

    • Analysis of flight data

    • Final reports and recommendations

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Acknowledgments l.jpg
Acknowledgments Performance

  • Flight Testing

  • Data Conversion

  • Preliminary Results

  • Proposed Flight Test

  • Flight Simulation

  • Cost Analysis

  • Time Analysis

  • Acknowledgements

  • Wright Aviation in Georgetown, TX

    • Bill Eldredge and staff

    • Alan Weaver – Flight Instructor

  • Dr. Ron O. Stearman

  • Basil Philip

  • Marcus Kruger

  • Joshua Foxworth

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


Summary39 l.jpg
Summary Performance

  • Mooney 305

    • Bakersfield, CA accident

    • Phugoid Mode

  • Cessna 172H

    • Falcon Field Accident

    • Flap settings and Engine Concerns

  • Flight Testing

    • Real Flight tests

    • X-Plane Simulator testing

Abraham Gutierrez Anh Huy Nguyen Douglas Wilson


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