aircraft structures and flight controls

aircraft structures and flight controls PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Aircraft Structures. Truss-type StructuresHad struts and wire-braced wingsOccupants sat in open cockpitsCockpits fabric-coveredStressed-skin StructuresAll of the structural loads are carried by the skin.Thin wood skinOr aluminum-alloy sheets. Aircraft Structures. MonocoqueVirtually no internal frameworkSemi-monocoqueInternal arrangement of formers and stringers is used to provide additional rigidity and strength to the skin..

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1. Aircraft Structures And Flight Controls

3. Aircraft Structures Monocoque Virtually no internal framework Semi-monocoque Internal arrangement of formers and stringers is used to provide additional rigidity and strength to the skin.

4. Semi-monocoque

5. Airframe Units: Fuselage Wings Stabilizers Flight control surfaces Landing gear

6. Airframe Units:

7. Structural Loads/Stress Five Types Of Stress Tension Compression Bending force Torsion Shear force

9. Structural Loads/Stress

11. Structural Loads/Stress Deformation Nonpermanent Deformation Deformation disappears when the load is removed. Permanent Deformation Wrinkles observed on top of wing and bottom of horizontal stabilizer. Stretch marks on the bottom of the wing or top o the stabilizer. (positive g’s)

12. Materials For Aircraft Construction Wood Aluminum Alloys Honeycomb Magnesium Stainless Steel

13. Materials For Aircraft Construction

14. Structures

15. Structures Wing Construction Truss-type

16. Structures Stressed-skin Wing Construction

17. Cantilever Wing

18. Control Surface Construction

19. Control Surface Construction Control Surface Flutter Control Surface must be mass balanced so that their center of gravity does not fall behind their hinge line.

20. Fuselage Construction Truss Fuselage construction Pratt truss Warren truss Stressed-skin Structure Monocoque Semi - Monocoque Pressurized Structure

21. Flight Controls

22. Flight Controls

23. Pitch Control Elevators Sole function is to change the angle of attack of the airplane, which alters its speed, lift and drag.

24. Pitch Control

25. Pitch Control Stabilator All-movable tail Anti-servo tab Ruddervators Provides both longitudinal and directional stabilization and control.

26. Lateral Or Roll Control Ailerons Rolling action produced is the primary method of lateral control on most aircraft.

27. Lateral Or Roll Control

28. Directional Control Adverse aileron yaw The aileron that moves downward creates lift and induced drag. Induced drag pulls the nose of the airplane around in the direction opposite the way the airplane should turn.

29. Directional Control Rudder Rotates the airplane about its vertical axis (Yawing) Also provides a form of roll control because the application of rudder causes yaw which will induce a roll.

30. Directional Control

31. Trim Controls

32. Trim Controls Trim Tabs Balance Tab Anti-Servo Tab Servo Tab Spring Tab Adjustable Stabilizer

33. Trim Tabs

34. Balance Tab

35. Anti-Servo Tab

36. Servo Tab Used on large aircraft when the control forces are too great for the pilot to manually move. Flight control column moves the tab on the control surface and this aerodynamically moves the main control surface.

37. Adjustable Stabilizer

38. Fixed Trim Tab

39. Aerodynamically Balanced Control Surface Overhang deflects to the opposite side of the fuselage from the main rudder surface to produce an aerodynamic force that aids the pilot.

40. Stall Strip and Vortex Generators

41. Auxiliary Lift Devices

42. Flaps Change the camber of the wing and increase both its lift and drag for and given angle of attack Moved by cables form an electric motor driven jackscrew.

43. Flaps

44. Leading Edge Devices Delays the the airflow separation caused by a stall to a higher angle of attack. Increases the energy of the air flowing over the surface.

45. Fixed Slot

46. Movable Slat

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