MLA Documentation. Preparing and documenting your research paper using Modern Language Association (MLA) style is an important, and necessary, part of completing your research paper. .
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Preparing and documenting your research paper using Modern Language Association (MLA) style is an important, and necessary, part of completing your research paper.
Most importantly, it is necessary for you to properly document your secondary sources according to this standardized system used for English composition and literature courses.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is MLA?
Why is it important to learn MLA style?
Where do I find the information for my list of works cited?
Where can I find more information about MLA style?
Types of Sources
Essentials of MLA
Works Cited Page
Works Cited List
Basic Elements: Authors
Basic Elements: Titles
Basic Elements: Publication Information
Works Cited Entries
Literary Criticism and Biographies
Literature Resource Center
Other Library Databases
Scholarly Journals or Periodicals
Internet Web Sites
Web sites with authors
Web sites without authors
Preparing and Formatting
The following links will help you complete a properly
documented MLA research paper:
Modern Language Association
Visit the official site for more information
Reference: Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
Modern Fiction Studies
The Internet Public Library
Bedford St. Martins LitLinks
author’s last name and page
number in parentheses
The author’s name is the first item of a works cited entry: last name first, comma, and then first name (note: this applies only to the first of multiple authors)
Baker, Nancy L., and Nancy Huling
(note: second author is listed first name first, last name last)
Anson, Chris M. , Robert A. Schwegler, and Marcia F. Muth
(note: second and third authors are listed first name first,
last name last)
Four or more authors
Roen, Duane, et al.
[i.e.,Roen, Duane, Veronica Pantoja, Lauren Yena, Susan K. Miller, and Eric Waggoner]
(note: only the first author’s name is listed,
followed by et al., Latin for ‘and others’)
Titles are usually the second item (after the author’s name) in a works cited entry: article, essay and chapter titles first, followed by book, journal and web page titles.
Titles of journal and web articles as well as chapters and essays in books are placed in quotation marks:
“’Distributing the News’: War Journalism as Metaphor for Language in Stephen Crane\'s Fiction.”
Include the complete title of the work, including the subtitle:
Stephen Crane: His Life and Works
Capitalize all important words in a title (except articles and coordinating conjunctions):
The Color of the Sky: A Study of Stephen Crane
Underline all book and journal titles as well as web site names:
Readings on Stephen Crane
Studies in American Fiction
PAL: Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference Guide
New York: Ungar,1987.
Studies in American Fiction 30. 2 (2002): 207-228.
Literary Resources on the Net. 15 June 2004. 20 May 2005. <http:// andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Lit/>
Books (Literary Criticism and Biography)
Knapp, Bettina Liebowitz. Stephen Crane. New York:
Reference (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias)
Cuddon, J. A. A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary
Theory 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
Anthology (Literary Criticism)
Westbrook, Max. “Recognizing the Two Voices in
Crane\'s Poetry.” Readings on Stephen Crane.
Ed. Bonnie Szumski. San Diego, CA :
Greenhaven Press, 1998: 189- 200.
some journal articles can be found in electronic journals
found on the Internet
Scholarly articles or essays written by experts are published in journals that come out weekly, monthly or quarterly throughout the year. Today these articles are available in both print and electronic formats.
Crisman, William "’Distributing the News’: War Journalism as Metaphor for Language in Stephen Crane\'s Fiction.” Studies in American Fiction 30. 2 (2002): 207-228.
Strand, Mark. “Poetry in the World.” Blackbird 4.1 (Spring 2005). 3 May 2005.
Other Library Subscription Databases
Many articles of literary criticism (print and full-text) can be found on the other library databases found on LINCCWeb
Literature Resource Center
Your primary source for both background information on your author and literary criticism articles on your story, poem or play is the Gale Group’s Literature Resource center, which you can access through the library databases.
Munson, Gorham B. Style and Form in American Prose. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1929. Literature Resource Center. Gale Databases. Miami Dade Coll. Lib. Miami, FL 22 Mar. 2005 <http://galenet.galegroup.com>.
Eye, Stefanie Bates. “Fact, Not Fiction: Questioning Our Assumptions about Crane\'s ‘The Open Boat.’” Studies in Short Fiction 35. 1 (Winter 1998): 65-76. WilsonWeb. Miami Dade Coll. Lib. Miami, FL 22 Mar. 2005 <http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com>.
Some website sources do not have an identifiable author, usually
because they are written by an organization or corporate authors. As
with all sources without an author’s name, the first item in the works
cited entry and in the intext citation should be the title of the essay or
article, or the web page name.
Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 6: Late Nineteenth Century -
Stephen Crane." PAL: Perspectives in American
Literature- A Research and Reference Guide. 8 Jan.
2005. 22 Mar. 2005 <http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/c
“Critical Reception: Early Reviews.” The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War. American Studies at the University of Virginia. 3 May 2005. <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/CRANE/reviews/section1.html>