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DNA Technology. DNA Extraction. Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst The DNA is inherently sticky , and can be pulled out of the mixture This is called “spooling” DNA. “Spooled” DNA. Cutting DNA. Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences

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Dna extraction
DNA Extraction

  • Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst

  • The DNA is inherently sticky, and can be pulled out of the mixture

  • This is called “spooling” DNA



Cutting dna
Cutting DNA

  • Restriction enzymescut DNA at specific sequences

  • Useful to divide DNA into manageable fragments


Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis

  • DNA can be separated based on size and charge

  • The phosphate groups are negatively charged

  • DNA is placed in a gel and electricity is run through


Electrophoresis1
Electrophoresis

  • Negative DNA moves toward the positive end

  • Smaller fragments move farther and faster



Steps in dna sequencing
Steps in DNA Sequencing

  • Many copies of a single strand of DNA are placed in a test tube

  • DNA polymerase is added

  • A mixture of nucleotides is added some of which have dye molecules attached

  • Each base (A,T,C,G) has a different color dye


Steps in dna sequencing1
Steps in DNA Sequencing

  • By chance, some dyed nucleotides & some regular ones are added

  • Dye molecules are large and stop the chain from growing


Dna sequencing
DNA Sequencing

  • The result is DNA fragments of multiple sizes with colors that can be identified


Dna sequencing1
DNA Sequencing

  • After the gel separates the resulting fragments by size, we 'read' the sequence from bottom to top.


Copying dna
Copying DNA

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Also called PCR

  • A method of making many copies of a piece of DNA


Steps in copying dna
Steps in Copying DNA

  • A DNA molecule is placed in a small test tube

  • DNA polymerase that can work at high temps is added


Steps in copying dna1
Steps in Copying DNA

  • The DNA is heated to separate the two strands

  • Primers, short pieces of DNA complementary to the ends of the molecule to be copied, are added


Copying dna1
Copying DNA

  • The tube is cooled, and DNA polymerase adds new bases to the separated strands


PCR

Large amounts of DNA can be made from a small starting sample


Cloning
Cloning

  • Clone- a member of a group of genetically identical cells

  • May be produced by asexual reproduction (mitosis)


Cloning organisms
Cloning organisms

  • A body cell from one organism and an egg cell from another are fused

  • The resulting cell divides like a normal embryo




Human genome project1
Human Genome Project

  • Started in 1990

  • Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes)

  • Over 3.3 billion nucleotides

  • Mapping every gene location (loci)

  • Conducted by scientists around the world


Hgp insights
HGP Insights

  • Only 2% of human genome codes for proteins (exons)

  • Other 98% (introns) are non-coding

  • Only about 20,000 to 25,000 genes (expected 100,000)

  • Proteome – organism’s complete set of proteins

  • About 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) – places where humans differ by a single nucleotide

  • About ½ of genome comes from transposons (pieces of DNA that move to different locations on chromosomes)


Benefits of human genome project
Benefits of Human Genome Project

  • Improvements in medical prevention of disease, gene therapies, diagnosis techniques …

  • Production of useful protein products for use in medicine, agriculture, bioremediation and pharmaceutical industries.

  • Improved bioinformatics – using computers to help in DNA sequencing …



Biotechnology
Biotechnology -

  • The use of gene science to create new products from plants and animals


BiotechnologyProvides:

  • Improved food products

  • Medical advances

  • An enhanced environment


Herbicide resistant crops
Herbicide Resistant Crops

  • Soybeans: Roundup Ready

  • Corn: Roundup Ready, Liberty Link

  • Cotton: BXN, Roundup Ready

  • Canola: Liberty Link, Roundup Ready

+ CP4 EPSPS = Roundup

gene Ready


Biotechnology breakthroughs
Biotechnology Breakthroughs

  • Insulin (1982)

    • First commercial biotech product

    • Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin

  • Rice

    • Enriched with beta-carotene and iron

  • Bananas

    • Containing edible hepatitis vaccine


Biotechnology breakthroughs1
Biotechnology Breakthroughs

  • Potatoes with higher solid content

  • Garlic that lowers cholesterol

  • Fruits and vegetables that reduce risks of cancer and heart disease


Environmental benefits
Environmental Benefits

  • Reduced pesticide use

  • Lower energy requirements

  • Cleaner water

  • Less soil erosion


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