Glycolysis
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Glycolysis :. Each slide in this presentation represents one step in the reordering exercise. The order of the slides can be used to verify that your sequence is in the correct order. Two ATP are consumed, forming 2 ADP + 2 P i. glucose (C 6 ). 2 ATP 2 ADP.

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Glycolysis

Glycolysis:

  • Each slide in this presentation represents one step in the reordering exercise. The order of the slides can be used to verify that your sequence is in the correct order.


Two atp are consumed forming 2 adp 2 p i

Two ATP are consumed, forming 2 ADP + 2 Pi.

glucose (C6)

2 ATP

2 ADP

Two ATP are consumed during glycolysis.

P-C6-P

This results in a 6-carbon compound that has 2 phosphate groups.

2C3

2 pyruvate (C3)


Two 3 carbon compounds are produced

Two 3-carbon compounds are produced.

glucose (C6)

2 ATP

2 ADP

Several different 3-carbon compounds are produced during the reactions. The designation “C3” is used here to represent all of them. Be aware that in addition to carbon, these compounds also contain oxygen and hydrogen.

2C3

2 pyruvate (C3)


Two nadh are produced from 2 nad

Two NADH are produced from 2 NAD+.

glucose (C6)

2 ATP

2 ADP

P-C6-P

2 C3-P

2 NAD+

NAD+ picks up two electrons to become NADH.

2 NADH

The goal of cellular respiration is to produce ATP. NADH contains energy that can be used to produce ATP. This will be discussed later.

2 pyruvate (C3)


Four atp are produced by substrate level phosphorylation

Four ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.

glucose (C6)

2 ATP

2 ADP

P-C6-P

2 C3-P

2 NAD+

2 NADH

2 P-C3-P

2 ADP

2 ATP

Four ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 pyruvate (C3)


Two molecules of pyruvate are formed from each glucose molecule

Two molecules of pyruvate are formed from each glucose molecule.

glucose (C6)

4 ATP produced

- 2 ATP consumed

2 ATP net

2 NADH are also produced

2 ATP

2 ADP

Glycolysis does not require oxygen (it is anaerobic). It occurs in the cytoplasm.

P-C6-P

2 C3-P

2 NAD+

2 NADH

2 P-C3-P

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 pyruvate (C3)


Formation of acetyl coa

Formation of Acetyl CoA:


A carbon atom is removed from each of the pyruvate molecules forming a two carbon compound and co 2

A carbon atom is removed from each of the pyruvate molecules forming a two-carbon compound and CO2.

2 Coenzyme A

2 CO2

2 pyruvate

(C3)

2 acetyl CoA

(C2-CoA)

2 NAD+

2 NADH


Each of the two carbon compounds is oxidized forming nadh from nad

Each of the two-carbon compounds is oxidized forming NADH from NAD+.

2 Coenzyme A

2 CO2

2 pyruvate

(C3)

2 acetyl CoA

(C2-CoA)

2 NAD+

2 NADH


Coenzyme a is attached to each of the two carbon compounds producing two acetyl coa molecules

Coenzyme A is attached to each of the two-carbon compounds producing two acetyl CoA molecules.

2 Coenzyme A

2 CO2

2 pyruvate

(C3)

2 acetyl CoA

(C2-CoA)

2 NAD+

2 NADH


Citric acid kreb s cycle

Citric Acid (Kreb’s) Cycle:


Glycolysis

Coenzyme A is removed when the two-carbon compound is attached to a four-carbon compound producing a six-carbon compound (citrate).

C2 (acetyl CoA)

Coenzyme A

C6

C4

Acetyl CoA + C4 C6 + Coenzyme A


Glycolysis

Each citrate molecule undergoes a series of reactions that removes 2 carbon atoms which are released as CO2. In addition, 3 NADH, 1 ATP, and 1 FADH2 are produced. The four-carbon compound that began the cycle is regenerated.

C2 (acetyl CoA)

Coenzyme A

C6

NADH

CO2

C4

C5

NADH

CO2

ATP

FADH2

NADH


Electron transport system and chemiosmotic phosphorylation

Electron Transport System and Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation:


Nadh and fadh 2 carry electrons to proton pumps embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion

NADH and FADH2 carry electrons to proton pumps embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

NADH

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+


Energy from nadh and fadh 2 is used to pump h into the intermembrane space

Energy from NADH and FADH2 is used to pump H+ into the intermembrane space.

H+

H+

H+

2H+ + 2e- + 1/2 O2 H2O

NADH

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+


Glycolysis

Hydrogen ions force their way through ATP synthase due to their higher concentration in the intermembrane space.

H+

H+

H+

2H+ + 2e- + 1/2 O2 H2O

NADH

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+


Atp synthase uses energy from the h concentration to phosphorylate adp

ATP synthase uses energy from the H+ concentration to phosphorylate ADP.

H+

H+

H+

2H+ + 2e- + 1/2 O2 H2O

NADH

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

ADP + Pi

ATP

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+


Summary

glucose (C6)

Summary

Glycolysis

2 ATP

2 ADP

Citric Acid Cycle

2 C3

2 NAD+

2 ADP

Formation of

Acetyl CoA

2 NADH

2 ATP

2 C2 (acetyl CoA)

2 ADP

2 C6

2 CO2

2 NADH

2 ATP

2 acetyl groups (C2)

2 pyruvate (C3)

2 CO2

2 C5

2 C4

2 NAD+

2 NADH

2 NADH

2 CO2

2 ATP

2 NADH

2 FADH2

10 NAD+

2 FAD

electron

transport

1/2 O2

32-34 ATP

H2O


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