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Osmoregulation and Excretion. Ainsley Lockhart and Emily Allyn. Osmoregulation: The Basics. Osmoconformers – Isoosmotic with surroundings Osmoregulators- Control internal environment independently from environment

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osmoregulation and excretion

Osmoregulation and Excretion

Ainsley Lockhart and Emily Allyn

osmoregulation the basics
Osmoregulation: The Basics
  • Osmoconformers –Isoosmotic with surroundings
  • Osmoregulators- Control internal environment independently from environment
  • Stenohaline –Animals that cannot tolerate large changes in external osmolarity
  • Euryhaline –Animals that can survive large fluctuation in external osmolarity.
osmoregulation energy cost and other mechanisms
Osmoregulation: Energy Cost and Other Mechanisms
  • Energy is required for active transport and diffusion of solutes and water
  • Transport epithelia is responsible for filtration and reabsorption
nitrogenous waste
Nitrogenous Waste
  • Ammonia
  • Urea
  • Uric acid
  • Evolution of each mode
excretion the basics
Excretion: The Basics
  • How excretory systems maintain homeostasis.
  • Bodily Fluids -> Filtrate -> Urine
evolution of excretory systems protonephridia
Evolution of Excretory Systems: Protonephridia
  • Organisms
    • Flatworms(acoelomates)
    • Rotifers
    • Some annelids
    • Mollusc larvae
    • Lancelets
  • Functions
    • Metabolic waste excretion
    • Osmoregulation
    • Disposal of nitrogenous waste
  • Mechanisms
    • Tubule network
    • Flame bulbs
evolution of excretory systems metanephridia
Evolution of Excretory Systems: Metanephridia
  • Organisms
    • Most annelids
  • Functions
    • Metabolic waste excretion
    • Osmoregulation
  • Mechanisms
    • Ciliated funnel
    • Collecting tubule
    • Transport epithelium
evolution of excretory systems malpighian tubules
Evolution of Excretory Systems: Malpighian Tubules
  • Organisms
    • Insects and other terrestrial arthropods
  • Functions
    • Nitrogenous waste disposal
    • Osmoregulation
  • Mechanism
    • transport epithelium
evolution of excrtory systems kidneys
Evolution of Excrtory Systems: Kidneys
  • Organisms
    • Vertebrates and some other chordates
  • Functions
    • Osmoregulation
    • Metabolic waste excretion
  • Mechanism:
    • Highly organized tubules
    • Ducts
structure of the mammalian excretory system
Structure Of The Mammalian Excretory System
  • Kidneys: renal cortex, renal medulla, nephron
  • Renal veins and arteries supply blood
  • Urine: Kidneys -> Ureter -> Bladder -> Urethra
adaptations and evolution of the mammalian kidney
Adaptations and Evolution of the Mammalian Kidney
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Hagfish and segmented kidneys
from blood filtrate to urine
From Blood Filtrate to Urine
  • proximal tubule        
  • descending and ascending limb of loop of Henle        
  • distal tube        
  • collecting duct
kidney adaptations mammals
Kidney Adaptations: Mammals
  • The juxtamedullary nephronfunctions for water conservation
  • Long loops of Henle
kidney adaptations birds and other reptiles
Kidney Adaptations: Birds and other Reptiles
  • Birds
    • Juxtamedullary nephrons
    • Shorter loops of Henle
    • Uric acid
  • Reptiles
    • Cortical nephrons
    • Transport epithelium in cloacas
    • Uric acid.
kidney adaptations freshwater fish and amphibians
Kidney Adaptations: Freshwater Fish and Amphibians
  • Freshwater Fish
    • Many nephrons
    • Transport epithelium for salt retention
  • Amphibians
    • Water vs. land adaptations
kidney adapations marine bony fish
Kidney Adapations: Marine Bony Fish
  • Small nephrons with no distal tube
  • Small or no glomeruli
  • Divalent ions flushed out with kidneys, proximal tubules of nephrons
  • Monovalent ions flushed out with gills
contribution of hormones to the mammalian excretory system
Contribution of Hormones to the Mammalian Excretory System
  • antidiuretic hormones (ADH)
  • hypothalamus and pituitary( osmoregulator cells in hypothalamus detects rising osmolarity of blood and produces the hormone. Hormone is stored in the pituitary gland)
  • distal tubes and collection ducts (aquaphorons) (the ADH binds to aquaphorons in kidney to change the water pemeability of transport epithelial)
renin angiotensin aldosterone system raas
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
  • juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), afferent arteriol ( the afferent arteriol moitors blood volume/ artetiol tension and instructs the JGA which is close by to make angiotensin II)
  • adrenal gland (makes aldosterone)
  • aldosterone, angiotensin II
homeostatic regulation of the kidney
Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
  • Antidiuretic hormones (ADH)
  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
disorders of the kidney
Disorders of the Kidney
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Affects of alcohol
  • Gout
  • "Gout: What You Should Know." American Family Physician 76.6 (2007): 811-12. Science Full Text Select. H. W. Wilson. Wilson Web Science. 6 Apr. 2009 <http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/.
  • Miller, Karen J., Eugene P. Kennedy, and Vernon N. Reinhold. "Osmotic adaptation by gram-negative bacteria: possible role for periplasmic oligosaccharides." Science 231 (Jan 3, 1986): 48(4). Student Resource Center - Bronze. Gale. PIEDMONT HIGH SCHOOL. 6 Apr. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS
  • Campbell, Neil A. “Biology.” Pearson, San Francisco. 2008.


borrowed photo credits
“Borrowed Photo” Credits
  • http://www.faqs.org/health/Body-by-Design-V2/The-Urinary-System.html
  • http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch44/
  • http://www.agen.ufl.edu/%7Echyn/age2062/OnLineBiology/OLBB/www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookglossM.html
  • http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/kidney-anatomy.html
  • http://www.nature.com/ki/journal/v63/n4/images/4493564f4.gif
  • http://home.bway.net/rjnoonan/humans_in_space/nephron.gif
  • Campbell, Neil A. “Biology.” Pearson, San Francisco. 2008.