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Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8. Metacognition and learning strategies . Cognitive Processes. Lower-level processes Higher-level processes . Metacognition. develops over time Greater metacognitive awareness = more likely to use effective strategies, have high achievement.

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Presentation Transcript
cognitive processes
Cognitive Processes
  • Lower-level processes
  • Higher-level processes
metacognition
Metacognition
    • develops over time
  • Greater metacognitive awareness = more likely to use effective strategies, have high achievement
effective learning strategies
Effective Learning Strategies
  • Overt strategies
  • Covert strategies
diversity disabilities exceptional abilities
Diversity, Disabilities, & Exceptional Abilities
  • Cultural differences in students’ epistemic beliefs
    • definition & purpose of learning
    • role of effort
    • learning strategies
  • Students with disabilities may need explicit instruction, scaffolding
knowledge transfer
Knowledge Transfer
  • Positive transfer
  • Negative transfer
  • Specific transfer
  • General transfer
factors affecting transfer
Factors Affecting Transfer
  • Meaningfulness of original learning
  • Similarity to original learning
  • Material
    • principles, theories more easily transferred than discrete facts
  • Relevance
    • context-free material more easily transferred than context-bound
  • Cultural environment, expectations
problem solving
Problem Solving
  • Well-defined problems
  • Ill-defined problems
problem solving strategies
Problem-Solving Strategies
  • Algorithm
  • Heuristic
factors affecting problem solving
Factors Affecting Problem Solving
  • Working memory capacity
  • Encoding
  • Metacognitive processes
creativity
Creativity
  • Two components
    • new, original behavior
    • productive result
  • Involves divergent thinking
fostering creativity
Fostering Creativity
  • Show students that creativity is valued
  • Focus on internal rewards
  • Promote mastery of subject area
  • Ask thought-provoking questions
  • Give students freedom, security to take risks
  • Provide time
critical thinking16
Critical Thinking
  • Evaluating accuracy, credibility, worth of information and lines of reasoning
    • verbal reasoning
    • argument analysis
    • probabilistic reasoning
    • hypothesis testing
fostering critical thinking
Fostering Critical Thinking
  • Teach fewer topics, greater depth
  • Encourage intellectual skepticism
  • Model critical thinking
  • Provide opportunities to practice
  • Ask questions
  • Debate controversial issues
  • Help students understand that critical thinking involves considerable mental effort, but it’s worth it
  • Embed critical thinking skills in authentic activities
diverse populations
Diverse populations
  • Respect culture
    • multicultural background enhances critical thinking skills
  • Assist students who have special needs
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