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Know about Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8


Metacognition and learning strategies . Cognitive Processes. Lower-level processes Higher-level processes . Metacognition. develops over timeGreater metacognitive awareness = more likely to use effective strategies, have high achievement. Effective Learning Strategies. Overt strategiesCover

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Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8

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Complex cognitive processes chapter 8 l.jpg

Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8


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Metacognition and learning strategies


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Cognitive Processes

  • Lower-level processes

  • Higher-level processes


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Metacognition

  • develops over time

  • Greater metacognitive awareness = more likely to use effective strategies, have high achievement


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    Effective Learning Strategies

    • Overt strategies

    • Covert strategies


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    Factors Affecting Strategy Use

    • ??


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    Diversity, Disabilities, & Exceptional Abilities

    • Cultural differences in students’ epistemic beliefs

      • definition & purpose of learning

      • role of effort

      • learning strategies

    • Students with disabilities may need explicit instruction, scaffolding


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    Knowledge Transfer

    • Positive transfer

    • Negative transfer

    • Specific transfer

    • General transfer


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    Factors Affecting Transfer

    • Meaningfulness of original learning

    • Similarity to original learning

    • Material

      • principles, theories more easily transferred than discrete facts

    • Relevance

      • context-free material more easily transferred than context-bound

    • Cultural environment, expectations


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    Problem Solving

    • Well-defined problems

    • Ill-defined problems


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    Problem-Solving Strategies

    • Algorithm

    • Heuristic


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    Factors Affecting Problem Solving

    • Working memory capacity

    • Encoding

    • Metacognitive processes


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    Creativity

    • Two components

      • new, original behavior

      • productive result

    • Involves divergent thinking


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    Fostering Creativity

    • Show students that creativity is valued

    • Focus on internal rewards

    • Promote mastery of subject area

    • Ask thought-provoking questions

    • Give students freedom, security to take risks

    • Provide time


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    Critical thinking


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    Critical Thinking

    • Evaluating accuracy, credibility, worth of information and lines of reasoning

      • verbal reasoning

      • argument analysis

      • probabilistic reasoning

      • hypothesis testing


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    Fostering Critical Thinking

    • Teach fewer topics, greater depth

    • Encourage intellectual skepticism

    • Model critical thinking

    • Provide opportunities to practice

    • Ask questions

    • Debate controversial issues

    • Help students understand that critical thinking involves considerable mental effort, but it’s worth it

    • Embed critical thinking skills in authentic activities


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    Diversity in complex thinking processes


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    Diverse populations

    • Respect culture

      • multicultural background enhances critical thinking skills

    • Assist students who have special needs