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Engineering Psychology. Cognitive processes. perception – sensation – attention – thinking – imagination – memory – creativity – problem solving. Jakub Jura Jakub.jura @fs.cvut.cz http://users.fs.cvut.cz/~jura/ing-psych/. What is Cognitive ?. From latin cognoscere = getting to know

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Engineering Psychology

Cognitive processes

perception – sensation – attention – thinking – imagination – memory – creativity – problem solving

Jakub Jura

[email protected]

http://users.fs.cvut.cz/~jura/ing-psych/


What is Cognitive?

  • From latin cognoscere = getting to know

  • Distinguish emotional and rational

  • Descarte’s „Cogito ergo sum“.

Mental processes mediate between stimulus and response.


Cognitive processes

  • Base Cognitive processes:

    • Perception

    • Sensation

    • Attention

    • Thinking

    • Imagination

    • Memory

  • Advanced Cognitive processes

    • Creativity

    • Problem solving


Sensation

  • Sensation is about sense organ and basic processes on this level.

  • Perception is about creating whole percept.


Sensation


Sensation Delusions

Lateral Inhibition Efect

  • Mach’s Strips


Negative afterimage


Perception

  • Perception is perception of diference.

  • Sensuals limits

  • Weber–Fechner law

  • Gestalt law

  • Multistable figures

  • Invariance in perception


Weber–Fechner Law

  • Psychophysics

  • Ernest Heinrich Weber (1795–1878)

  • Gustav Theodor Fechner(1801–1887)

  • Stimulus Percept

  • Stimulus Sensation  Percept


Experiment 1

  • Dependence of sense impression on the intensity of stimulus

  • Sound

  • Light

  • Procedure:

  • Set intensity to basic level (L)

  • Increase intensity up to one degree (L+1)

  • Remember this degree and set intensity up to L+2, L+3, … L+n

Impresion

Sensum


Weber–Fechner Law

  • dP = k * dS/S,

  • P = k * ln (S/S0)

  • P = k * (S/S)

    • P … percept

    • k … constant

    • S … stimulus

    • S0 … lower possible stimulus


Perception Delusionss

Which of these circles is bigger?


Perception Delusionss

  • Effect of Contrast

Lighter

Darker


Perception Delusionss


Is anything here?


Gestalt Laws

  • Proximity

    • We tend to group nearby objects.

  • Similarity

    • We tend to group objects with similar properties

  • Closure

    • We are so accustomed to seeing closure that we sometimes close things that aren't.


Gestalt Laws

  • Good Continuation

    • We tend to assign objects to an entity that is defined by smooth lines or curves

  • Pregnantz

    • We tend to good shape


Experiment 2


Multistable perception

  • Mind separate figure and backgroun.

  • Unstably between two or more alternative interpretations.

  • Since you see both, you can’t see both.

  • Changing may be under control only partially.


Invariance in perception

  • Objects are recognized independent of rotation, translation, scale, elastic deformations, different lighting, and different component features.


Neisser's cycle of perceptionCognitive Ecology

Actual world

Object

available

information

Samples

Modify

Schema

of environment

Exploration

Locomotion and action

Cognitive map

Directs


Memory

  • Sensory memory

    • George Sperling

    • (200 – 500 ms)

  • Short-term memory

    • George Miller

    • 7±2 chunks

    • Chunking process (recoding)

  • Long-term memory

    • Hippocampus

  • Memory processes:

    • Imprint

    • Retent

    • Remember

    • Recognise


Ebbinghaus experiments

1 2 3 4 5 678

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Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

  • R = e-t/s

    • R …memory retention

    • s …relative strenght of memory

    • t …time

45 %

35 %


Serial-positioning effect

  • Which of the syllable you remember easily?

  • Initialy

  • Final

  • Out of serial-positioning effect:

  • Meaningfull

  • Related to myself

  • Connected to my activity


Memory test

  • How big is capacity of you visual memory?

Redraw this figure maximaly precisely


Imaging

Constructive and Reconstructive processes and eyes movement.

  • Imagine yellow elephant with red dots.

  • Imagine what did you eat last evening.


F

Experiment 3 - Mental rotation

  • How many times you need to read rotated sign.

R

B

A

L

M

Q

T


Completing square test

11

18


Attention

  • Orientation reflex

  • Orientation activities

  • Bourdon test

  • d2 test


Thinking

  • J. P. Guilford:

  • Convergent production - generation of logical conclusions from given information, where emphasis is upon achieving unique or conventionally best outcomes. It is likely that given (cue) information fully determines the outcome as in mathematics and logic.

  • Divergent production - generation of logical alternatives from given information, where emphasis is upon variety, quantity, and relevance of output from the same source.


Problem Solving

  • http://www.studygs.net/problem/index.htm


  • Interconect all of this 9 point by the 4 segments of a line non-stop.


Creativity

  • Preparation

  • Incubation

  • Insight

  • Evaluation

  • Elaboration


E. Rossi – creative phase


Metacognition

  • Thinking about thinking (exactly cognition about cognition)

  • First-level metacognition

  • Second-level metacognition


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