Taxonomy
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Taxonomy. The science of classifying organisms . Classify To arrange according to similarities or differences. Why classify?. Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. We classify to make our lives easier.

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Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The science of classifying organisms.

Classify

To arrange according to similarities or differences.


Why classify
Why classify?

Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study.

We classify to make our lives easier.



Aristotle
Aristotle

  • Simple classifications

  • Used common names

  • Plant or animal?

  • If an animal does it have blood?

    does it

    • Fly

    • Swim

    • Walk/Crawl


  • DISCUSSION QUESTION - Using Aristotle's 3-group system (based on movement), name 2 animals that would fit each of the 3 groups.


Problems with this system
Problems with this system?

Some animals can walk, swim, and fly



Carolus linnaeus 1700s
Carolus Linnaeus 1700s system?

  • Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials

  • Developed binomial nomenclature

  • First word = Genus name (Capitalized)

  • Second word = species name (lowercase)

    scientific name

    • Example Canis lupus

      Always italicized or underlined


Why binomial nomenclature
Why binomial nomenclature? system?

  • Binomial - 2 name

  • Nomenclature – naming system

  • Much easier than a 10+ word name under old “polynomial system”

  • Same name no matter where you go (Latin)

  • Less confusion


Devil Cat system?


Ghost Cat system?


Mountain Lion system?


Screaming Cat system?


Puma system?



Cougar system?



Taxonomic hierarchy
Taxonomic Hierarchy system?

  • Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific



Milky way solar system earth u s ohio westerville mainsail dr 283
Milky way system?Solar SystemEarthU.S.OhioWestervilleMainsail Dr.283


Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species
Domain system?KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies


Three domains of life
Three Domains of Life system?

There used to be 2, why do you think there are 3 now?


Domain system?Archaeabacteria: Life's Extremists...! Archaea are found in the harshest environments on Earth, and are the oldest known organisms on Earth, appearing in the fossil record over 3.6 BILLION years ago (3,600,000,000 years ago!)


Domain Bacteria (or Eubacteria): system?

is familiar to most people when associated with human or animal disease. However, most bacterial species do not (and cannot) cause disease.

Most species even play beneficial roles for humans by producing antibiotics and food.


Domain Eukarya system?

A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.

(Organism’s cell has a nucleus.)


Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species1
Domain system?KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies


Pro = before system?


Why has taxonomy changed throughout history? system?

Do you think it will continue to change?


Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes system?

  • We are now filling out our charts


Archaea
Archaea system?

  • Unicellular prokaryotes

  • Autotrophs

  • Cell wall


Eukaryotes system?

Eu = true

Have membrane bound nuclei



Phylum examples
Phylum examples system?

  • Chordata Cord Chordates Hollow dorsal nervous chord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, endostyle, post-anal tail about 100,000+ Cnidaria Stinging nettle Coelenterates Nematocysts (stinging cells) about 11,000 Ctenophora Comb bearer Comb jellies Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia about 100 modern species Cycliophora Wheel carrying Symbion Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia


Classification of humans
Classification of Humans system?

  • Kingdom Animalia

  • Phylum Chordata

  • Class Mammalia

  • Order Primates

  • Family Hominidae

  • Genus Homo

  • Species sapiens


Is your table filled out

Is your table filled out? system?

Don’t lose it!!!


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