Taxonomy
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Taxonomy. The science of classifying organisms . Classify To arrange according to similarities or differences. Why classify?. Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. We classify to make our lives easier.

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Taxonomy

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Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The science of classifying organisms.

Classify

To arrange according to similarities or differences.


Why classify

Why classify?

Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study.

We classify to make our lives easier.


History of taxonomy

History of Taxonomy


Aristotle

Aristotle

  • Simple classifications

  • Used common names

  • Plant or animal?

  • If an animal does it have blood?

    does it

    • Fly

    • Swim

    • Walk/Crawl


Taxonomy

  • DISCUSSION QUESTION - Using Aristotle's 3-group system (based on movement), name 2 animals that would fit each of the 3 groups.


Problems with this system

Problems with this system?

Some animals can walk, swim, and fly


What technology helped scientist improve the classification system

What technology helped scientist improve the classification system?

Microscope -1600s


Carolus linnaeus 1700s

Carolus Linnaeus 1700s

  • Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials

  • Developed binomial nomenclature

  • First word = Genus name (Capitalized)

  • Second word = species name (lowercase)

    scientific name

    • Example Canis lupus

      Always italicized or underlined


Why binomial nomenclature

Why binomial nomenclature?

  • Binomial - 2 name

  • Nomenclature – naming system

  • Much easier than a 10+ word name under old “polynomial system”

  • Same name no matter where you go (Latin)

  • Less confusion


Taxonomy

Devil Cat


Taxonomy

Ghost Cat


Taxonomy

Mountain Lion


Taxonomy

Screaming Cat


Taxonomy

Puma


Taxonomy

Florida Panther


Taxonomy

Cougar


Felis concolor

Felis concolor


Taxonomic hierarchy

Taxonomic Hierarchy

  • Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific


Classification of living things

Classification of Living Things


Milky way solar system earth u s ohio westerville mainsail dr 283

Milky waySolar SystemEarthU.S.OhioWestervilleMainsail Dr.283


Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species

DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies


Three domains of life

Three Domains of Life

There used to be 2, why do you think there are 3 now?


Taxonomy

Domain Archaeabacteria: Life's Extremists...! Archaea are found in the harshest environments on Earth, and are the oldest known organisms on Earth, appearing in the fossil record over 3.6 BILLION years ago (3,600,000,000 years ago!)


Taxonomy

Domain Bacteria (or Eubacteria):

is familiar to most people when associated with human or animal disease. However, most bacterial species do not (and cannot) cause disease.

Most species even play beneficial roles for humans by producing antibiotics and food.


Taxonomy

Domain Eukarya

A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.

(Organism’s cell has a nucleus.)


Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species1

DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies


Taxonomy

Pro = before


Taxonomy

Why has taxonomy changed throughout history?

Do you think it will continue to change?


Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

  • We are now filling out our charts


Archaea

Archaea

  • Unicellular prokaryotes

  • Autotrophs

  • Cell wall


Taxonomy

Eukaryotes

Eu = true

Have membrane bound nuclei


Taxonomy

  • Most are unicellular


Phylum examples

Phylum examples

  • Chordata Cord Chordates Hollow dorsal nervous chord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, endostyle, post-anal tail about 100,000+ Cnidaria Stinging nettle Coelenterates Nematocysts (stinging cells) about 11,000 Ctenophora Comb bearer Comb jellies Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia about 100 modern species Cycliophora Wheel carrying Symbion Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia


Classification of humans

Classification of Humans

  • Kingdom Animalia

  • PhylumChordata

  • ClassMammalia

  • OrderPrimates

  • FamilyHominidae

  • GenusHomo

  • Speciessapiens


Is your table filled out

Is your table filled out?

Don’t lose it!!!


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