Gender Analysis in Agriculture Punjab - Pakistan

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Gender Analysis in Agriculture Punjab - Pakistan

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1. Gender Analysis in Agriculture Punjab - Pakistan Field Insights ? 11-13 May 2011 Linda Pennells IASC GenCap Adviser The State of Food and Agriculture report in 2010/2011 focused on closing the gender gap that disadvantages women in agriculture. This manual identified that 39% of the economically active population in Pakistan is involved in agriculture. Of this 39% active in farming, one in three is a woman (29.6%). In a country where we often hear that women are confined to the house.....the reality is much different. Women are active in the livestock sheds and in the fields...farming is very much a partnership of women and men. Ayoo: I would encourage all GenCaps to use the SOFA as it provides some useful data on the presence of women and men in agriculture.The State of Food and Agriculture report in 2010/2011 focused on closing the gender gap that disadvantages women in agriculture. This manual identified that 39% of the economically active population in Pakistan is involved in agriculture. Of this 39% active in farming, one in three is a woman (29.6%). In a country where we often hear that women are confined to the house.....the reality is much different. Women are active in the livestock sheds and in the fields...farming is very much a partnership of women and men. Ayoo: I would encourage all GenCaps to use the SOFA as it provides some useful data on the presence of women and men in agriculture.

2. Activity ?Quick capture? of gender good practice and field insights: Multan orientation and tool revision. IP and beneficiary discussions ? Ali Pur IP and beneficiary discussions ? Bootaywala Objectives Contribute field insight into 3-week Pakistan mission. Demonstrate field-friendliness and value of practical tools. Identify a sampling of relevant gender issues with FAO/WFP team. Contribute to toolkit for the FAO-led AFSSWG livelihoods assessment. Background: My mission to Pakistan was only three weeks. Upon arrival I was pleased to attend two days of the five-day SEAGA training (FAO/WPF?s training in participatory tools for socio-economic and gender analysis). Then, Osama Bin Laden was assassinated, and I was confined by UNDSS to the guesthouse for two more days. The need to use ?quick capture? gender analysis tools became very clear for three reasons: my mission time was being eclipsed, access to the field was going to be more limited than I had hoped, and the FAO team?s project sheets clearly reflected that we needed to ?uncover gender dimensions? to demonstrate practical ways of bringing relevant gender issues into their projects. Hence, I worked with the FAO Islamabad team who briefed me on key projects and assisted to create these simple tools: the aim was to structure our field discussions as efficiently as possible. Otherwise, there was risk that I would have a ?look see? with not enough substance to engage the cluster members in the upcoming gender marker trainings. In Multan, we had a team discussion on the tools. This included the FAO team in Multan, two WFP local staff (Tubba Zahir Sr Programme Officer and Mamoona Ghaffir-Social Mobilizer) and two IPs. During the three days, three implementing partners were invovled: Mojaz Foundation, World Vision and Strengthening Participatory Organization (SPO). During this first meeting in Multan, the Pakistani teams made some useful suggestions to enrich the tools which were then the focus our field discussions on days two and three.Background: My mission to Pakistan was only three weeks. Upon arrival I was pleased to attend two days of the five-day SEAGA training (FAO/WPF?s training in participatory tools for socio-economic and gender analysis). Then, Osama Bin Laden was assassinated, and I was confined by UNDSS to the guesthouse for two more days. The need to use ?quick capture? gender analysis tools became very clear for three reasons: my mission time was being eclipsed, access to the field was going to be more limited than I had hoped, and the FAO team?s project sheets clearly reflected that we needed to ?uncover gender dimensions? to demonstrate practical ways of bringing relevant gender issues into their projects. Hence, I worked with the FAO Islamabad team who briefed me on key projects and assisted to create these simple tools: the aim was to structure our field discussions as efficiently as possible. Otherwise, there was risk that I would have a ?look see? with not enough substance to engage the cluster members in the upcoming gender marker trainings. In Multan, we had a team discussion on the tools. This included the FAO team in Multan, two WFP local staff (Tubba Zahir Sr Programme Officer and Mamoona Ghaffir-Social Mobilizer) and two IPs. During the three days, three implementing partners were invovled: Mojaz Foundation, World Vision and Strengthening Participatory Organization (SPO). During this first meeting in Multan, the Pakistani teams made some useful suggestions to enrich the tools which were then the focus our field discussions on days two and three.

3. Focus The roles of men and women in rice and wheat production. Gender lessons learned in farm equipment distributed in EU-funded Food Facility Project. Gender in local irrigation. Facilitators Jam Khalid / Abida Begum ? equipment (35 min). Jam Khalid / Abida Begum - rice (20 min). Jamil Amir ? wheat (20 min). Irrigation ? short episodes totalling 30 minutes.

4. Rice Production - Bootaywala This discussion is centred on one five-month rice production cycle. The time estimated is for one acre of rice crop. This slide tells us: Women spend two or three hours in local rice production for every hour that men spend. The two most time-consuming activities in rice production here are: Hand harvesting ? which takes 10 days of effort (typically women invest 6 days of time and men invest 4 days of time in hand harvesting) Threshing ? which takes 10 days of effort- all by women The next most time-consuming activity for women is transplanting rice (estimated at 40 hours to plant one acre...usually the collective effort of a small group of women) compared to the next most time-consuming activity for men which is soil preparation. The men said they use a tractor and invest up to 8 hours per acre in land preparation time. All decisions are made by men including when the women will transplant or thresh etc. Women only make decisions after the rice enters the house for food preparation. All roles that involve either a) mechanization or b) mobility (buying inputs, selling or bartering rice) involve men. The only exception is that some women sell very small amounts of rice in the local village in order to buy a food item etc.This discussion is centred on one five-month rice production cycle. The time estimated is for one acre of rice crop. This slide tells us: Women spend two or three hours in local rice production for every hour that men spend. The two most time-consuming activities in rice production here are: Hand harvesting ? which takes 10 days of effort (typically women invest 6 days of time and men invest 4 days of time in hand harvesting) Threshing ? which takes 10 days of effort- all by women The next most time-consuming activity for women is transplanting rice (estimated at 40 hours to plant one acre...usually the collective effort of a small group of women) compared to the next most time-consuming activity for men which is soil preparation. The men said they use a tractor and invest up to 8 hours per acre in land preparation time. All decisions are made by men including when the women will transplant or thresh etc. Women only make decisions after the rice enters the house for food preparation. All roles that involve either a) mechanization or b) mobility (buying inputs, selling or bartering rice) involve men. The only exception is that some women sell very small amounts of rice in the local village in order to buy a food item etc.

5. Bootaywala ? community feedback Women invest 2 or 3 hours for every hour invested by men in rice production (determinant: combine or not). Gender gap in decision-making: not reflect M-F input. Rice is a ?partnership? crop: males and females share some roles but have distinct skills/knowledge in rice production. Conflict or disaster that causes family separation can jeopardize yield. Vital analysis for projects focusing on local rice production: what do male and female farmers do, what time to they invest in the crop, what are their different skills and coping methods; how does rice work factor into men?s and women?s other productive, reproductive and community work. One of the key points here is that men have skills that women do not in rice production (marketing, pest management, nursery management) and women have skills that men do not have (rice transplanting and seed storage). So, if a conflict rips the family apart i.e. Men out-migrate or join the combatants or are killed....or women go to camps while men stay on the land....there is real risk that crop yields will drop significantly. If both men and women are not present, the full skillset for producing rice does not exist. Family separation is a food security issue! Interestingly, FAO?s Multan Coordinator Jam Khaled said that rice seed is so expensive that men do not trust women to work in/manage the rice seedling nurseries. So, in contrast with most other local crops where women are active in nursery production, in this part of Pakistan, the men do not trust women in rice nurseries! When Jam Khaled said this, a number of men looked down, a bit humbled, but nodded that this was indeed the reality.One of the key points here is that men have skills that women do not in rice production (marketing, pest management, nursery management) and women have skills that men do not have (rice transplanting and seed storage). So, if a conflict rips the family apart i.e. Men out-migrate or join the combatants or are killed....or women go to camps while men stay on the land....there is real risk that crop yields will drop significantly. If both men and women are not present, the full skillset for producing rice does not exist. Family separation is a food security issue! Interestingly, FAO?s Multan Coordinator Jam Khaled said that rice seed is so expensive that men do not trust women to work in/manage the rice seedling nurseries. So, in contrast with most other local crops where women are active in nursery production, in this part of Pakistan, the men do not trust women in rice nurseries! When Jam Khaled said this, a number of men looked down, a bit humbled, but nodded that this was indeed the reality.

6. The Bootaywala Sources In this part of the Punjab, men and women were comfortable to participate in the same discussion. Men sat in one cluster and women in another. The participation of women was active. After the end of the rice discussion, two men started to thank the women for all the work they do! It was an ah-ha moment for some of the men to register that the women did at least twice as much rice work as men! The women smiled coyly. One beamed.In this part of the Punjab, men and women were comfortable to participate in the same discussion. Men sat in one cluster and women in another. The participation of women was active. After the end of the rice discussion, two men started to thank the women for all the work they do! It was an ah-ha moment for some of the men to register that the women did at least twice as much rice work as men! The women smiled coyly. One beamed.

7. This community is one of the communities in which farm equipment was distributed as part of the EU-funded Food Facility Project. FAO and WFP are both implementers of this large project which has many activity areas. My analysis focused only on one activity: farm equipment distribution. The FF project created 100 Machinery Pool Groups. Each serves 25 farming households. The 25 HHs elect an executive that the project dictated must have male and female members. (We did not have time to investigate the comparative power and influence of men and of women on the executive) The executive ensures the timely sharing of equipment and keeps the equipment in good working order. Comments on this slide: Seed bin: used by women. The innovation/benefit here is that this bin is specifically for storing seed. Grain for sale/consumption is stored separately. Before the project, the women would take some of the grain from one large storage and use it for seed....there was no separation. Now women are taking an hour more to select seed more carefully and protect it better in the new seed bins. Jab planter: Used by women. One woman can plant one acres in 2 hr. This replaces 22 hr of hand planting (the 22 hr usually a collective effort of 4-6 women) Maize sheller: Motorized and used by men. Men invest a half hour using this machine --- this is work that men did not do before ?- a change in gender roles. This half hour of men?s work saves women 5 hr of beating corn cobs with a stick to knock the kernels off. The stick bashing caused a lot of kernels to be cracked or lost. So the maize sheller not only saves women?s time but reduces crop loss. Rice de-huller: Mechanized and used by men. This increases farmer profit. Before this machine was provided, farmers had to travel to another community and pay miller fees to have rice de-hulled. Power Tiller: This is the machine the community found most amazing. It is used only by men. It has two roles. It is used in reaping ? and replaces 150 hr of back-breaking women?s work (five women each investing 30 hr). It is also used in digging kitchen gardens. Hand-digging usually took women 9 hr and men 4 hr. Now, women are saved 159 hour of women and men perform the reaping in 45 minutes and dig the garden in 30 minutes. So, me save 2.75 hr. This change in gender roles creates a very major saving of women?s time and a minor saving in men?s time. (the FAO team is now exploring what the women did with their extra time!) Wheat seed drill: This is tractor-driven and used by men. It replaces the local drills that traditionally place seed only. This drill places seed and fertilizer at the same time, saving men 30 minutes an acre. This community is one of the communities in which farm equipment was distributed as part of the EU-funded Food Facility Project. FAO and WFP are both implementers of this large project which has many activity areas. My analysis focused only on one activity: farm equipment distribution. The FF project created 100 Machinery Pool Groups. Each serves 25 farming households. The 25 HHs elect an executive that the project dictated must have male and female members. (We did not have time to investigate the comparative power and influence of men and of women on the executive) The executive ensures the timely sharing of equipment and keeps the equipment in good working order. Comments on this slide: Seed bin: used by women. The innovation/benefit here is that this bin is specifically for storing seed. Grain for sale/consumption is stored separately. Before the project, the women would take some of the grain from one large storage and use it for seed....there was no separation. Now women are taking an hour more to select seed more carefully and protect it better in the new seed bins. Jab planter: Used by women. One woman can plant one acres in 2 hr. This replaces 22 hr of hand planting (the 22 hr usually a collective effort of 4-6 women) Maize sheller: Motorized and used by men. Men invest a half hour using this machine --- this is work that men did not do before ?- a change in gender roles. This half hour of men?s work saves women 5 hr of beating corn cobs with a stick to knock the kernels off. The stick bashing caused a lot of kernels to be cracked or lost. So the maize sheller not only saves women?s time but reduces crop loss. Rice de-huller: Mechanized and used by men. This increases farmer profit. Before this machine was provided, farmers had to travel to another community and pay miller fees to have rice de-hulled. Power Tiller: This is the machine the community found most amazing. It is used only by men. It has two roles. It is used in reaping ? and replaces 150 hr of back-breaking women?s work (five women each investing 30 hr). It is also used in digging kitchen gardens. Hand-digging usually took women 9 hr and men 4 hr. Now, women are saved 159 hour of women and men perform the reaping in 45 minutes and dig the garden in 30 minutes. So, me save 2.75 hr. This change in gender roles creates a very major saving of women?s time and a minor saving in men?s time. (the FAO team is now exploring what the women did with their extra time!) Wheat seed drill: This is tractor-driven and used by men. It replaces the local drills that traditionally place seed only. This drill places seed and fertilizer at the same time, saving men 30 minutes an acre.

8. Bootaywala Equipment Feedback The six pieces of FAO farm equipment saves women 183 hr but increases men?s work by about 4 hr per acre. Equipment changes gender roles: power tiller/maize sheller. Gender gap in mechanization and learning. Focus of women?s learning: separate seed and grain storages and using 1 hand tool. Men?s learning focus: operating, maintaining and minor repair of 4 pieces of mechanized equipment. Power equipment for men ? hand-operated for women. Gender gap in decision-making: not reflect M-F partnership. Demonstrates need to identify who will be impacted how when farm equipment selected: the positive serendipity of results in this community can not be assumed. Up-front gender analysis is needed. This gender analysis identified ?invisible? project results.

9. Gender in irrigation Water User Groups ? all men ? registered landowners Irrigation water is used on crops (mainly rice and wheat) in which community members confirm that women do about 2/3 of the farm labour : a representation gap Need for holistic approach: water for all food crops, including home gardens, fruit and nut trees etc. Opportunities for partnership exist e.g. FAO-IOM collaboration to provide kitchen garden drip irrigation toolkits on USAID project Creative options needed: irrigation hoses to link canal water to home gardens; drip toolkits; synergistic or linked irrigation and domestic water projects

10. Other insights: Bootaywala/Ali Pur Women Open Schools (WOS) are Farmer Field Schools for women: merit renaming to recognize women as farmers. Farm women express need for WOS curriculum expansion: beyond home gardening to include livestock & key cash crops. Good WFP analysis supported synergistic livelihoods skills of men and women in smallholder and tenant farm families: e.g. Mix of goat share-cropping (F), day labour (M-F), farming (M-F) and irrigation management (M). Local feminization of agricultural day labour ? lowest pay ? men have higher-paid options, women often do not.

11. Bootaywala /Ali Pur [cont?d] Gender analysis signals a too-high ?opportunity cost? if there is a push to expand cotton acreage for export earnings. *women: 30-40 days weeding per acre in 5-month cycle. *men: 14 hr land levelling by hand so irrigation water reaches all plants. Toxic pesticide risk highest for male sprayers and female cotton pickers and vegetable growers (Not an FAO issue as FAO does IPM). For every 10 hr local men invest in wheat production, women invest 8 ? not exclusively a ?men?s crop?! Men?s roles centre on mechanization and mobility. Child labour appears higher than politically-conscious project partners admit ? gender dynamics warrant exploring. Social barriers exist for women in market access and economic migration but the ?door is not closed? ? explore what women want to do and feel they can negotiate social sanction to do.

12. Conclusions - Identify Practical gender analysis can help identify the important realities of women compared to men: who should be consulted/involved and why. who has skills, knowledge and potentially solutions to offer. who needs extension service, training, farm inputs and resources. the impact of distribution (equipment, livestock & crop inputs). the comparative opportunity cost of males & females.

13. Conclusions - Benefits Benefits: FAO team inspired to create 8 more practical tools for field use and use by IPs. FAO Pakistan rethinks implement distribution to women farmers. Field analysis triggers active discussion on the Gender Marker ? relevance is seen as are practical ways of building gender into projects. Contributed to incorporating gender into Pakistan?s Detailed Livelihoods Assessment. It might be nice to end with reference to the SOFA 2010/11 report which stated that, ? If women had the same access to productive resources on their farms as men, they could increase yields by 20-30% and lift up to 150 million out of hunger.? This SOFA report and some of its findings will be useful for all GenCaps working with Food Security Clusters. It might be nice to end with reference to the SOFA 2010/11 report which stated that, ? If women had the same access to productive resources on their farms as men, they could increase yields by 20-30% and lift up to 150 million out of hunger.? This SOFA report and some of its findings will be useful for all GenCaps working with Food Security Clusters.


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