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COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh. COPD. C hronic O bstructive P ulmonary D isease A progressive disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. COPD: an umbrella term.

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COPD

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COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Juliana Tambellini

University of Pittsburgh


COPD

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Aprogressive disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe


COPD: an umbrella term

  • Umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases which include:

    • Emphysema

    • Chronic bronchitis

    • Refractory (irreversible) asthma

    • Severe bronchiectasis


Other names for COPD

  • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD)

  • Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD)


COPD

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung ailment that is characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow from the lungs.

  • It is an under-diagnosed, life-threatening lung disease that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible.


Understanding COPD

  • Critical to first understand normal lung function

Image courtesy of The National Institute of health


Lung structure and function

“Biological Science Freeman”, 2010


Lungs with copd

Image courtesy of The National Institute of health


Causes

  • Most cases of COPD occur as a result of long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways

  •  The most common irritant that causes COPD is cigarette smoke

  • In rare cases, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency may play a role in causing COPD


Who is at risk?

  • People who smoke or are exposed to smoke

  • People who have a family history of COPD are more likely to develop the disease if they smoke

  • Long-term exposure to other lung irritants also is a risk factor for COPD

  • Almost 90% of COPD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, where effective strategies for prevention and control are not always implemented or accessible.


Symptoms

  • breathlessness

  • abnormal sputum (a mix of saliva and mucus in the airway)

  • a chronic cough

  • daily activities can become very difficult as the condition gradually worsens


diagnosis

  • A simple diagnostic test called "spirometry“ measures how much air a person can inhale and exhale, and how fast air can move into and out of the lungs

  • Spirometry can detect

    COPD long before its

    Symptoms appear. 


Treatment

  • COPD has no cure

  • Quitting smoking is the most important step an individual can take to treat COPD

  • Other treatments for COPD may include medicines, vaccines, pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab), oxygen therapy, and surgery


Managing copd

  • COPD symptoms usually slowly worsen over time

  • A cold, the flu, or a lung infection may cause symptoms to intensify

  • Prescription antibiotics may treat infections and other medicines, such as bronchodilators and inhaled steroids, can help facilitate breathing


Managing COPD

  • Avoid lung irritants

  • Get ongoing care

  • Manage the disease and its symptoms

  • Prepare for emergencies


Copd: statistics

  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimates that 12 million adults have COPD, and another 12 million are undiagnosed or developing COPD

  • Estimated that over 210 million people worldwide have COPD


Copd: statistics

  • COPD cost the U.S. economy about $32.1 billion, in direct and indirect costs in 2002

  • A person with COPD dies every four minutes in the U.S

  • COPD will be the third leading cause of death in the U.S. by 2020


Who response

  • Raise awareness about the global epidemic of chronic diseases

  • Create more healthy environments, especially for poor and disadvantaged populations

  • Decrease common chronic disease risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity

  • Prevent premature deaths and avoidable disabilities from major chronic diseases


Sources

  • The World Health Organization

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs315/en/

  • The COPD Foundation

    http://www.copdfoundation.org/

  • The US Department of Health and Human Services

    http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Copd/Copd_WhatIs.html

  • National Heart Lung and Blood Institute

    http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/lung/other/copd_breathe.htm

  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention

    http://www.cdc.gov/


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