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COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh. COPD. C hronic O bstructive P ulmonary D isease A progressive disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. COPD: an umbrella term.

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COPD

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COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Juliana Tambellini

University of Pittsburgh


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COPD

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Aprogressive disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe


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COPD: an umbrella term

  • Umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases which include:

    • Emphysema

    • Chronic bronchitis

    • Refractory (irreversible) asthma

    • Severe bronchiectasis


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Other names for COPD

  • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD)

  • Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD)


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COPD

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung ailment that is characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow from the lungs.

  • It is an under-diagnosed, life-threatening lung disease that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible.


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Understanding COPD

  • Critical to first understand normal lung function

Image courtesy of The National Institute of health


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Lung structure and function

“Biological Science Freeman”, 2010


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Lungs with copd

Image courtesy of The National Institute of health


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Causes

  • Most cases of COPD occur as a result of long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways

  •  The most common irritant that causes COPD is cigarette smoke

  • In rare cases, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency may play a role in causing COPD


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Who is at risk?

  • People who smoke or are exposed to smoke

  • People who have a family history of COPD are more likely to develop the disease if they smoke

  • Long-term exposure to other lung irritants also is a risk factor for COPD

  • Almost 90% of COPD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, where effective strategies for prevention and control are not always implemented or accessible.


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Symptoms

  • breathlessness

  • abnormal sputum (a mix of saliva and mucus in the airway)

  • a chronic cough

  • daily activities can become very difficult as the condition gradually worsens


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diagnosis

  • A simple diagnostic test called "spirometry“ measures how much air a person can inhale and exhale, and how fast air can move into and out of the lungs

  • Spirometry can detect

    COPD long before its

    Symptoms appear. 


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Treatment

  • COPD has no cure

  • Quitting smoking is the most important step an individual can take to treat COPD

  • Other treatments for COPD may include medicines, vaccines, pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab), oxygen therapy, and surgery


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Managing copd

  • COPD symptoms usually slowly worsen over time

  • A cold, the flu, or a lung infection may cause symptoms to intensify

  • Prescription antibiotics may treat infections and other medicines, such as bronchodilators and inhaled steroids, can help facilitate breathing


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Managing COPD

  • Avoid lung irritants

  • Get ongoing care

  • Manage the disease and its symptoms

  • Prepare for emergencies


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Copd: statistics

  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimates that 12 million adults have COPD, and another 12 million are undiagnosed or developing COPD

  • Estimated that over 210 million people worldwide have COPD


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Copd: statistics

  • COPD cost the U.S. economy about $32.1 billion, in direct and indirect costs in 2002

  • A person with COPD dies every four minutes in the U.S

  • COPD will be the third leading cause of death in the U.S. by 2020


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Who response

  • Raise awareness about the global epidemic of chronic diseases

  • Create more healthy environments, especially for poor and disadvantaged populations

  • Decrease common chronic disease risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity

  • Prevent premature deaths and avoidable disabilities from major chronic diseases


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Sources

  • The World Health Organization

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs315/en/

  • The COPD Foundation

    http://www.copdfoundation.org/

  • The US Department of Health and Human Services

    http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Copd/Copd_WhatIs.html

  • National Heart Lung and Blood Institute

    http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/lung/other/copd_breathe.htm

  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention

    http://www.cdc.gov/


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