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World War II. Chapter 35. Essential Questions. What were the turning points of WWII? How did WWII affect the social, economic, and political lives of American citizens?. Space for Time. Pearl Harbor awakened a sleeping giant Germany 1 st , Japan 2 nd strategy

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World war ii

World War II

Chapter 35


Essential questions
Essential Questions

  • What were the turning points of WWII?

  • How did WWII affect the social, economic, and political lives of American citizens?


Space for time
Space for Time

  • Pearl Harbor awakened a sleeping giant

  • Germany 1st, Japan 2nd strategy

  • US needed to retool itself for war production.

  • Allies must move quickly to counteract German secret weapon developement


Japanese internment
Japanese Internment

  • War speeded assimilation of most ethnic groups, all needed in army, factories

  • Japanese-Americans (110,000) forced into internment camps (Executive Order)

  • Fear their true allegiance was to Japan, may help with sabotage

  • Proved to be unnecessary, lost rights, $, and property

  • Korematsu v. US: SC states that internment was constitutional

  • 1988: US apologized, paid reparations




Home front
Home Front

  • New Deal works projects programs wiped out (full employment)

  • WWII cured to Great Depression

  • War Production Board: guided industry in switch from consumer goods to war materials

  • Prohibited to manufacture of cars, refrigerators, etc.

  • Farmers increased production

  • Office of Price Administration: oversaw rationing, price controls

  • War Labor Board: wage ceilings, labor unions

  • Strikes did occur, gov. temporarily nationalized striking facilities



Calling all women and mexicans
Calling All Women (and Mexicans)

  • 15 million men, 216,000 women serve in US military

  • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAACs)

  • Mexican Immigrants encouraged to cross border, help with farm labor shortage

  • Women stepped into factories

  • Unlike WWI, women did not want to leave job force

  • Challenges ahead: Suburban domesticity v. Working Woman


Rosie the riviter
Rosie the Riviter


Wartime migrations
Wartime Migrations

  • Industrial boomtowns see population increase

  • California and South greatly aided by wartime factories

  • Roots of the Sunbelt

  • 1.6 million AA follow in WWI footsteps, leave south for north, west

  • Increase in AA in historically white areas causes tensions

  • Responding to threat of A. Phillip Randolph (AA labor leader), FDR issues order forbidding discrimination in workplace

  • Roots of Civil Rights Movement!!!!!!!


Wartime migrations1
Wartime Migrations

  • Mechanical cotton picker solved labor shortage in south

  • American Indians leave reservations for jobs.

  • Used by army, their native languages became an unbreakable code, great asset to the Allies

  • Zoot-Suite Riots: clashes between whites and Mexican-Americans in California

  • Race riots in Detroit signal that US won’t change 300 years of hatred overnight


Wartime migrations2
Wartime Migrations

African American Migrations

Zoot Suit


$$$$$$$$$

  • WWII devastated world, except US

  • Doubled US GDP

  • Personal income doubled

  • Once rations, price ceilings lift, prices go up 33%

  • Government heavily orchestrates economy

  • Post WWII = era of big government spending

  • New Deal + WWII = increased welfare state

  • Relationship between gov. and universities leads to massive scientific breakthroughs

  • Debt goes sky high, taxes increase



Rising sun of japan
Rising Sun of Japan

  • While Pearl Harbor was bombed, Japan simultaneously takes Guam, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia and invades Philippines

  • Remember why……RESOURCES!

  • Take Burma, Allies link to China, must now fly “over the hump” (Himalayas)

  • US and Filipinos fight bravely for months, lack of supplies force surrender in 1942.

  • General Douglas MacArthur “I shall return.”

  • Japanese brutal to POWs, execute many, force to march 80 miles (Bataan Death March)




Turning point midway
Turning Point: Midway

  • Invasion of Australia thwarted at Battle of Coral Sea, 1942

  • US intelligence learns of Japanese intent to take Marshall Islands (Would allow them to bomb, invade Hawaii)

  • Surprise! We meet Japanese fleet at Midway

  • 100% carrier based fighting

  • Admiral Chester Nimitz leads US victory, Japan loses 4 aircraft carriers.

  • Japan never able to recover.

  • Japan does hold Alaskan Aleutian Islands, forces US to build highway to Alaska




Island hopping
Island Hopping

  • US strategy in Pacific: force Japanese off of islands one at a time, back toward Japan

  • Japanese held ground even when faced with certain defeat, overwhelming numbers

  • 10 Japanese die for every 1 Allied soldier

  • US takes island, build airstrips and bases overnight, began attack on next island

  • US takes Guam,1944: B-29 Superbomber could now carry destruction to Japanese mainland



War in europe
War in Europe

  • Allies break German “Enigma” Code

  • US, UK focus on freeing North Africa, succeed in 1942

  • 1942-43: USSR stops Axis advance with a crushing win at Stalingrad. (Turning point on Eastern Front!!)

  • Stalin now began a counteroffensive push toward Germany.



Second front
Second Front

  • US and UK needed to get into Europe to help USSR, hoping to split the Axis forces with 2 warfronts

  • Believed Italy was the weakest point.

  • General Dwight Eisenhower given command

  • Casablanca: Allies agree on “Unconditional surrender” as terms of victory (Recall to difficulties that the Armistice created in WWI)

  • 1943: Allies invade Italy, Italy surrenders, but Germans in Italy keep fighting.


Second front1
Second Front

  • Fighting in Italy was tough and slow, takes a year to conquer Rome.

  • Allies now focus on an invasion of France


D day
D-Day

  • Tehran: 1943, FDR, Churchill and Stalin meet

  • Eisenhower will lead an attack on Normandy on June 6, 1944.

  • Largest amphibious invasion in history a success.

  • US and UK began to liberate France, push Germans back from West while USSR pushes the East.


Fdr elected for a 4 th term
FDR Elected for a 4th Term

  • Republicans nominate Thomas Dewey in 1944.

    • Platform: Continue war, create international peace organization

  • Democrats keep FDR, worry about age – Harry Truman picked as his VP

  • FDR wins because of war going well- 432 to 99


Guter tag hitler
Guter Tag Hitler!

  • Dec. 1944, USSR penetrates East Germany

  • Hitler not done, throws all of his resources and troops into one last effort, Battle of the Bulge

  • Hitler hits UK/US western front at weakest point.

  • Allies lose ground, but push back in early 1945.

  • USSR and US troops meet at the Elbe River in April, celebrate the inevitable.

  • USSR wins race to Berlin, April 30th, Hitler kills himself

  • May 7th, Germany surrenders (VE Day)





No 5 th term
No 5th Term

  • Franklin Roosevelt did not see the end of the war he commanded.

  • Dies April 12th, from brain hemorrhage.

  • Harry Truman sworn in as 33rd President.

  • Nation morns their leader of 12 years.


President harry truman
President Harry Truman

  • Not close to FDR

  • Only been to White House once as VP

  • No clue about war plans.


Holocaust
Holocaust

  • As USSR and US pushed closer to Germany, the truth about Concentration Camps was learned.

  • 6 million Jews, 11 million total victims

  • World stunned by extent of Nazi cruelty.



2 down japan to go
2 Down, Japan to Go

  • US subs surrounded Japan, no resources in

  • Once close enough, US begins constant bombing of Japanese mainland

  • Retaking the Philippines tough, but MacArthur keeps his promise

  • Iwo Jima: taken by allies with heavy casualties.

  • Okinawa: First invasion of Japanese homeland.

    • Japanese soldiers refuse to surrender, 50,000 US dead.

  • Japan resorts to “kamikaze” suicide attacks



Manhattan project
Manhattan Project

  • Potsdam Conference: 1945 meeting of Big 3

  • US faced massive casualties if they invaded Japan.

  • 1940: US began secret project to build atomic bomb, trying to beat Germans

  • Successful test in July, 1945

  • August 6 = Hiroshima

    • 100,000+ dead

  • August 9 =Nagasaki

    • 80,000 + dead

  • August 14 = VJ Day



Allies triumph
Allies Triumph

  • 250,000 + American dead

  • New Medical breakthroughs: blood transfusions, penicillin save countless lives

  • Only major participant that didn’t see major damage at home

  • Heroes: Eisenhower, MacArthur, George Marshall, Nimitz, FDR

  • War production = miracle of victory

  • Trend of big government spending will continue.

  • USSR: Friend or Foe?


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