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Types of Exercise Training & the Effects on the Body. Melissa McLaughlin Michael Dellogono. Muscular Adaptations to Resistance Training. Increased size Fiber type transition Biochemical improvements (enzymes) Increased strength, power, & endurance. Hypertrophy. Muscular enlargement

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types of exercise training the effects on the body

Types of Exercise Training & the Effects on the Body

Melissa McLaughlin

Michael Dellogono

muscular adaptations to resistance training
Muscular Adaptations to Resistance Training
  • Increased size
  • Fiber type transition
  • Biochemical improvements (enzymes)
    • Increased strength, power, & endurance
  • Muscular enlargement
    • Cross sectional area, + relation w/strength
  • Result of increased synthesis of actin & myosin and number of myofibrils
strength power
Strength & Power
  • Strength - maximal force that a muscle or group of muscles can generate
  • Power - maximal force exerted as fast as possible - EXPLOSIVE!
  • Ability for the muscle to repetitively contract of a sustained period of time
    • Ultra-Marathoners
    • Rowing (long distance)
    • Distance runners
interval training
Interval Training
  • Increase & decrease intensity between aerobic & anaerobic
    • Work:active recovery ratio (1:3, 85-90%)
    • No more than 1 or 2 sessions/week to start w/ 3 days of rest
    • change 3:1 to 2.5:1.5 or 2.0:2.0
  • Go past aerobic threshold & then return to aerobic conditioning level to improve performance
    • intensity body switches from burning a greater % of fat to a greater % of carbs , 85% of your maxHR
  • Heart rate is great way to measure how hard you are working
    • Max heart rate=220-age
    • 85% of max heart rate (21 years old): (220-age)x.85= 169.15
advantages disadvantages
Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Advantages:
    • Fitness, performance, recovery time improve quickly
    • Improves aerobic fitness better than traditional training & in less time
    • Enzymes use oxygen more efficiently increased O2 capacity
    • Increase fat burn & can double endurance capacity w/ 15 min of intense cycling over a 2-week period
    • HR will be lower at work & active recovery
  • Disadvantages:
    • Performed too often can increase risk of overtraining
      • Symptoms: loss of performance & appetite, inability to sleep, chronic aches and pains & colds, overuse injuries, unusual fatigue, increase in resting HR, irritability
    • bad knees avoid intervals walking, running or jogging
    • Stop exercise if it hurts & modify workout
    • Check with doctor before starting interval training
interval training1
Interval Training
  • Physiological effects:
    • @ low end of training range: working aerobically and burning more fat
    • @ high end of training range: HR increases, breathing harder, anaerobic, burning more carbs than fat
  • Reasons to do interval training:
    • improve recovery HR
    • weight-loss plateau
    • bored
    • Allows you to workout harder & longer & burn more fat & more calories
      • Must burn more calories than you consume to lose weight even with intervals
  • 8-10min warm up & 5 min cool-down after intervals
    • See sample interval training
interval vs circuit training
Interval vs. Circuit Training
  • Circuit training
    • Spend 30-45s at one machine or station with dumbbells or resistance exercise and then move onto next station
    • aerobic & RT
    • Another form of interval training
      • when you break from one machine to the next HR decreases & when you begin working out again it increases
      • wont be as beneficial as running or cycling intervals but will tone and strengthen muscles
      • Whereas aerobic interval training has more beneficial effects
high intensity interval training
High-Intensity Interval Training
  • Specialized form of IT
    • Short intervals of max intensity exercise-low to moderate intensity exercise
  • Similarities to traditional interval training
    • Differences include:
      • Increased EPOC
      • Burn more fat
      • Limits muscle loss
  • To get the benefits from HIIT
    • push yourself past the upper end of your aerobic zone & allow your body to replenish your anaerobic energy system during the recovery intervals
  • HII involve maximum effort, not simply a higher heart rate
    • there are many different approaches to HIIT
      • different numbers of high and low intensity intervals
      • different levels of intensity during the low intensity intervals
      • different lengths of time for each interval
      • different numbers of training sessions per week
guidelines for hiit
Guidelines for HIIT
  • designed for people who want to boost overall cardiovascular fitness, endurance and fat loss without losing muscle mass
  • Before starting the program, you should be able to exercise for at least 20-30 minutes at 70-85% of maxHR
  • gradually build up your training program so that you don’t overdo it
  • warm up and cool down
  • Work as hard as you can during the high intensity intervals, until you feel the burning sensation in your muscles indicating that you have entered your anaerobic zone
  • If you experience any chest pain or breathing difficulties during your HIIT workout, cool down immediately
  • HR should be at 70% of maxHR during recovery
    • If it is not: shorten work intervals and/or lengthen recovery intervals
cross fit
  • Combines weightlifting, sprinting and gymnastics
  • Proficiency is required in each of 10 fitness domains
    • cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, power, speed, agility, balance, coordination & accuracy
  • Fitness: increased work capacity across all domains
    • neurologic & hormonal adaptations across all metabolic pathways
  • Run, row, jump rope, climb rope, carry odd objects, move large loads over short distances & use power-lifting & Olympic weightlifting
  • Used by 2000 gyms, F.D., law enforcement agencies, military organizations
    • At a gym: warm up, skill development segment, high intensity workout for 10-20 min
    • Can be used by: children, pregnant women, seniors, football players, military special forces, endurance athletes
  • Performed 3-5 d/week can provide exercise that will satisfy exercise guidelines
  • Has greater health benefits than moderate activity
cross fit1
  • "equals better fitness and stronger muscles in a more reasonable amount of time“
  • "build muscle and get in shape by spending 60 minutes or more in the gym several days a week..."
  • "is a different type of exercise routine ...a well-rounded and very efficient way to achieve a higher level of fitness ...that does not need a whole lot of fancy equipment, but does offer a nice variety to keep the interest level up and provide the challenge needed to keep the exercise fun.”
    • PureHealthMD, Discovery Health Channel