Techniques of Exercise

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Techniques of Exercise. Resistance Training ExerciseResistance machines Free weightsFunctional trainingPlyometricsSpeed-strength Agility, Reaction TimeAerobic enduranceFlexibility. Resistance Machines. Types of MachinesWeight MachinesHydraulic machinesFrictionTubingPreparatory body positionGripStanceLimb AlignmentMachine adjustment.

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Techniques of Exercise

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1. Techniques of Exercise Teaching Neuromuscular Conditioning for Human Performance Management, Physical Education, and Athletic Training

3. Resistance Machines Types of Machines Weight Machines Hydraulic machines Friction Tubing Preparatory body position Grip Stance Limb Alignment Machine adjustment

4. Resistance Machines (cont’d) Execution techniques Body position Speed/control of movement Movement/range of motion Breathing Muscular involvement Identify and correct improper exercise technique

5. Free Weights Types of Free Weights Barbells Dumbells Preparatory body position Grip Stance Alignment

6. Free Weights (cont’d) Execution techniques Body position Speed/control of movement Movement/range of motion Breathing Spotting techniques Identify number of spotters for exercise Teach correct spotting location Teach proper preparatory placement when spotting lifter Muscular involvement

7. Advantages & Disadvantages of Weight Machines Advantages Recommended for beginners Convenient Safe: weight cannot fall Less clutter No spotters needed Offers variable resistance Ensures correct movement Easy to use: less skill Easy to move from one exercise to next Easier to adjust Easier to isolate specific muscles Disadvantages Limited availability Expensive Require a lot of space Do not allow natural movement Most machines have only one exercise

8. Advantages & Disadvantages of Free Weights Advantages Allow dynamic movements Allow a greater variety of exercises Widely available Require minimal space Strength transfers to daily activities Inexpensive Offers greater sense of accomplishment Disadvantages Not as safe as machines, weights can fall Balancing required Require spotters for some exercises Allow cheating by using momentum Require more time to change weights Can cause blisters and calluses Clutter creates hazard when weights are scattered

9. Exercises Body Areas Arms Shoulders Chest Back Legs Buttocks Abdomen Balance Front/back Push/pull Upper/lower Order Big to little Multiple-joint to single joint Core at end

10. Teaching Assignments Resistance Machines Hip Flexors Hip Extensors Knee Flexors Knee Extensors Abdominal Lower back Free Weights Chest: bench press Upper back: rows Shoulders: press Shoulders: raise Elbow flexors Elbow extensors

11. Functional Training Types of Exercises Jerk Push Press Power Clean Snatch Preparatory body position Grip Stance Alignment

12. Functional Training (cont’d) Execution techniques Body position Speed/control of movement Movement/range of motion Breathing Spotting techniques Muscular involvement Identify and correct improper exercise technique

13. Power Lifting See DVD for technique Teaching progression Sticks Bars only Bars light weight

14. Plyometric Training Term plyometric from Latin plyo + metric interpreted to mean “measurable increases.” Plyometric training movements make use of the inherent stretch-recoil characteristics of skeletal muscle and neurological modulation via the myotatic reflex. The stretch-shortening cycle describes the sequence, eccentric-isometric-concentric muscle actions.

15. Stretch-Shortening Cycle

16. Plyometric Training Plyometric drill training for lower body incorporates body mass and force of gravity to provide rapid pre-stretch or cocking phase, to activate the stretch reflex and muscle’s natural elastic recoil elements. When stretching occurs rapidly, stored elastic energy in muscle fibers, and initiation of myotatic reflex combine to produce a powerful concentric action.

17. Plyometric Training

18. Plyometric Training Six classifications of lower extremity plyometric exercises: Jumps-in-place Standing jumps Multiple hops and jumps Bounding Box drills Depth jumps Upper extremity plyometric training utilize medicine ball activities.

19. Plyometric Training

20. Plyometric Training Very specific in nature but very broad in application For lower extremities, designed to train athlete to develop either vertical or horizontal acceleration. Offensive lineman or crouch start: standing long jump, double leg hops? horizontal force. Basketball rebound or volleyball spike: depth jump skills? vertical power. Medicine ball activities create stretch-shortening of upper extremity muscles.

21. Speed “Sprinting is a series of ballistic strides in which the body is repeatedly launched forward as a projectile.” Baechle & Earle Running speed is interaction of stride frequency and stride length. Elite sprinters achieve greater stride length & increase it until 45 m, novice achieve @ 25 m. Elite sprinters achieve greater stride frequency & increase it until 25 m, novice achieve @ 10-15 m. Elite sprinter achieve greater initial force & velocity at the start, achieve greater rate of acceleration & reach max velocity after 45-55 m, novice @ 20-30 m.

22. Sprint Drills Sprint form running drills aimed at 3 technique variants: Drive- starting acceleration and push-off action Stride- full-flight striking or pushing action Lift- kick-at-speed pulling action Focus on 3 aspects when applying technique variants Eye focus Arm action Leg action

23. Sprint Drills Primary Training Method Properly planting the foot under COG Minimize braking forces & ground support time Exerting maximal backward impulse Secondary Training Methods Assisted sprinting: methods artificially improve stride frequency. Resisted sprinting: uses resistance to improve speed-strength and stride length.

24. Agility “Agility involves greater emphasis on deceleration and subsequent reactive coupling with acceleration than linear sprinting.” Changes in direction and speed can be executed at variety of velocities. Agility classified as general or specific: Open or nonprogrammed: reaction & adaptation of motor pattern to new or unforeseen situations. Closed or programmed: motor stereotype or technique.

25. Agility (cont’d) Basic technical guidelines Visual focus. Head in neutral position, eyes focused ahead, regardless of direction of motion. Arm Action. Explosive arm action used as means to rapidly reacquire high stride rate and length. Ability to decelerate from given velocity is requisite. Instruct to achieve “second gear” (half speed) on 1st whistle & stop w/i 3 steps on 2nd whistle. Once execute first drill, five-step braking action from “third gear” (three-quarter speed) introduced. Finally, seven-step braking action from “fourth gear” (full speed.

26. Reaction Open or nonprogrammed type of agility training Reaction type drills with no predetermined structure.

27. Aerobic Machines Anatomical Controllable Variables: posture Mechanical Controllable Variables: resistance, amplitude, frequency Physiological Dependent Variables: muscles, joints, heart rate. Elliptical Cycles Rowers

28. Jogging/Walking Recommended intensity, duration, frequency necessary for development of cardiorespiratory fitness. Utilize the principles of overload, specificity, and progression and how relates to programming. Components of an exercise session and proper sequence (warm-up, aerobic stimulus phase, cool-down, muscular strength and/or endurance, and flexibility).

29. Stretching Static Stretching. Dynamic Stretching. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

30. Conclusion Resistance training exercise Free weight equipment Resistance machines Plyometric exercise technique Speed and speed-endurance development Agility technique Aerobic endurance exercise techniques Flexibility exercise techniques Static PNF Dynamic and ballistic

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