The atom
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The Atom. All matter is made up of atoms! (press F5 to begin). Protons: positively charged particles located in the nucleus or core of the atom. Each proton has a mass of 1 Neutrons: neutral particles also located in the nucleus. They also have a mass of 1

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The Atom

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The atom

The Atom

All matter is made up of atoms!

(press F5 to begin)


Types of subatomic particles

Protons: positively charged particles located in the nucleus or core of the atom. Each proton has a mass of 1

Neutrons: neutral particles also located in the nucleus. They also have a mass of 1

Electrons: negatively charged particles. They have almost no mass at all, 1/2000 of the mass of a proton or neutron. The move rapidly in the space around the nucleus.

Types of Subatomic Particles

http://www.eskom.co.za/nuclear_energy/fuel/fuel.html


Numbering atoms

Numbering Atoms

  • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines the identity of an atom. This is also called the atomic number

  • Each atom has the same number of electrons and protons, so if you know the atomic number you then know the number of protons and electrons

  • E.g. Oxygen has the atomic number of 8, therefore there are 8 protons and 8 electrons


Numbering atoms1

Numbering Atoms

Mass Number: represents the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom. If you know the atomic number (number of protons) and the atomic mass (number of protons plus neutrons) then you can calculate the number of neutrons

Mass number-atomic number = number of neutrons

Standard Atomic Notation: internationally recognized system


Standard atomic notation

Standard Atomic Notation


Worksheet

Worksheet

Complete the following part of

5b The Atom

Word Document:

A. INSIDE THE ATOM


The bohr model of the atom

The Bohr Model of the atom

Niels Bohr helped develop the model of the atom that we use today.

He believed that:

  • Electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus, much like planets orbit the sun

  • These orbits are located at certain distances from the nucleus

  • Electrons can not exist between these orbits, but they can move up and down from one orbit to another

  • The maximum number of electrons in the first three orbits is 2,8, and 8

  • Electrons are more stable when they are closer to the nucleus


Elemental builder

Elemental Builder

  • Go to the following website:

    www.explorelearning.com

    Log in with the user name and password your teacher provides for you

    Launch Elemental Builder Gizmo in the Science class

    Complete Student Exploration and Quiz


Worksheet1

WORKSHEET

Complete the following part of

5b The Atom

Word Document:

B. SHELLS AND ELECTRONS


The bohr rutherford diagram

A circle is drawn in the centre to represent the nucleus of the atom

The number of protons and neutrons are written in this circle

Electrons are shown in circular orbits around the nucleus

The Bohr-Rutherford Diagram

http://www.clickandlearn.org/Gr9_Sci/atoms/modelsoftheatom.html


Filling in a bhor rutherford diagram

Filling in a Bhor-Rutherford Diagram

  • The electrons arrange themselves around the atom from the inner most orbital out. (click to see how this in action)

P = 11

N = 12

K

L

M


Worksheet2

Worksheet

Complete the following part of

5b The Atom

Word Document:

C. BHOR-RUTHERFORD DIAGRAMS


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