The Atom
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The Atom. What is an Atom?. Atom : Smallest unit of all matter 3 Main Parts: 1) Proton (+ charge) 2) Neutron (No charge) 3) Electron (- charge) Protons & Electrons usually equal in number Elements (substance made of only 1 type of atom) are identified on the Periodic Table.

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The Atom

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The atom

The Atom


What is an atom

What is an Atom?

  • Atom: Smallest unit of all matter

  • 3 Main Parts:

    • 1) Proton (+ charge)

    • 2) Neutron (No charge)

    • 3) Electron (- charge)

  • Protons & Electrons usually equal in number

  • Elements (substance made of only 1 type of atom) are identified on the Periodic Table


Reading the periodic table

Atomic Number: Number of protons the atom contains

Usually # of electrons also

Atomic Mass: Combined # of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus

Electrons too small to affect mass

How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does Carbon contain?

Protons = ______

Electrons = ______

Neutrons = ______

Reading the Periodic Table

6

6

6


What s the

What’s the:

4

  • Atomic number of Beryllium?

    B) Atomic mass of Beryllium?

    C) How many protons?

    D) How many electrons?

    E) How many neutrons?

9

4

4

5


The atom

Electron Cloud

Examine Carbon below. It has 2 electrons in the first level and 4 electrons in the 2nd level. Is Carbon stable?

  • Electrons orbit the nucleus in “energy levels”

    1st level:

    • closest to nucleus

    • stable w/ 2 electrons

      2nd level:

    • stable w/ 8 electrons

      3rd level:

    • stable w/ 8 electrons

  • Atoms are stable when the outermost level is “full”


  • The atom

    Molecules

    • Molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond

      • Form when atoms are unstable

    • Covalent Bond: Chemical bond where atoms share electrons

      • Ex: Oxygen atom

        • Why unstable? Only 6 electrons in outer energy level

        • What happens? Each oxygen atom will share two electrons with the other oxygen

        • End result? Both will have 8 electrons in its outer level (O2 is created)


    The atom

    Ionic Bonds

    • Ionic bond: chemical bond where electrons are gained/lost

      • Creates Ions (atoms with + or – charge)

    • Held together by magnetic attraction

    • Cause: 1 atom steals an electron(s) from another atom

    • Ex: Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride

    sodium

    chlorine


    The atom

    Ionic Bonds

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    sodium

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    chlorine

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    e

    After bonding

    Before bonding

    11+

    11+

    17+

    17+

    10-

    18-

    11-

    17-

    +1

    -1

    0

    0


    Kobe kuiz

    Kobe Kuiz

    • Name the 3 subatomic particles.

    • Which subatomic particles are found inside the nucleus?

    • The atomic number usually allows us to determine the amount of which two subatomic particles?

    • If an atom has the atomic mass of 14 and the atomic number of 6, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does the atom contain?

    • After an ionic bond is formed, what is the charge of the atom that gained an electron?

    • Which type of chemical bond shares electrons?


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