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The Atom - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Atom. What is an Atom?. Atom : Smallest unit of all matter 3 Main Parts: 1) Proton (+ charge) 2) Neutron (No charge) 3) Electron (- charge) Protons & Electrons usually equal in number Elements (substance made of only 1 type of atom) are identified on the Periodic Table.

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what is an atom
What is an Atom?
  • Atom: Smallest unit of all matter
  • 3 Main Parts:
    • 1) Proton (+ charge)
    • 2) Neutron (No charge)
    • 3) Electron (- charge)
  • Protons & Electrons usually equal in number
  • Elements (substance made of only 1 type of atom) are identified on the Periodic Table
reading the periodic table
Atomic Number: Number of protons the atom contains

Usually # of electrons also

Atomic Mass: Combined # of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus

Electrons too small to affect mass

How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does Carbon contain?

Protons = ______

Electrons = ______

Neutrons = ______

Reading the Periodic Table

6

6

6

what s the
What’s the:

4

  • Atomic number of Beryllium?

B) Atomic mass of Beryllium?

C) How many protons?

D) How many electrons?

E) How many neutrons?

9

4

4

5

slide5

Electron Cloud

Examine Carbon below. It has 2 electrons in the first level and 4 electrons in the 2nd level. Is Carbon stable?

  • Electrons orbit the nucleus in “energy levels”

1st level:

      • closest to nucleus
      • stable w/ 2 electrons

2nd level:

      • stable w/ 8 electrons

3rd level:

      • stable w/ 8 electrons
  • Atoms are stable when the outermost level is “full”
slide6

Molecules

  • Molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
    • Form when atoms are unstable
  • Covalent Bond: Chemical bond where atoms share electrons
    • Ex: Oxygen atom
      • Why unstable? Only 6 electrons in outer energy level
      • What happens? Each oxygen atom will share two electrons with the other oxygen
      • End result? Both will have 8 electrons in its outer level (O2 is created)
slide7

Ionic Bonds

  • Ionic bond: chemical bond where electrons are gained/lost
    • Creates Ions (atoms with + or – charge)
  • Held together by magnetic attraction
  • Cause: 1 atom steals an electron(s) from another atom
  • Ex: Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride

sodium

chlorine

slide8

Ionic Bonds

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

sodium

e

e

e

e

e

e

chlorine

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

After bonding

Before bonding

11+

11+

17+

17+

10-

18-

11-

17-

+1

-1

0

0

kobe kuiz
Kobe Kuiz
  • Name the 3 subatomic particles.
  • Which subatomic particles are found inside the nucleus?
  • The atomic number usually allows us to determine the amount of which two subatomic particles?
  • If an atom has the atomic mass of 14 and the atomic number of 6, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does the atom contain?
  • After an ionic bond is formed, what is the charge of the atom that gained an electron?
  • Which type of chemical bond shares electrons?
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