Livestock feeding ans 320 swine feeding and management lecture 1 april 13
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Livestock Feeding AnS 320 “ Swine Feeding and Management” Lecture 1: April 13. Dr. John F. Patience Department of Animal Science 201H Kildee Hall Phone: 294-5132 Email: [email protected] Applied Swine Nutrition Research Program. www.ans.iastate.edu/faculty/jfp/acc/. Objectives.

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Livestock Feeding AnS 320 “ Swine Feeding and Management” Lecture 1: April 13

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Livestock feeding ans 320 swine feeding and management lecture 1 april 13

Livestock FeedingAnS 320“Swine Feeding and Management”Lecture 1: April 13

Dr. John F. Patience

Department of Animal Science

201H Kildee Hall

Phone: 294-5132

Email: [email protected]


Applied swine nutrition research program

Applied Swine Nutrition Research Program

www.ans.iastate.edu/faculty/jfp/acc/


Objectives

Objectives

  • To establish and maintain effective two-way communication with the pork industry.

  • To implement a research program with a short- to medium-term time line.

  • To fully integrate graduate training at both the M.S. and Ph.D. levels into our research program.

  • To communicate the results of the research program to the pork industry and the academic community.


Our goal

Our Goal

To develop an understanding of high priority nutrition and management issues to createsolutions and develop strategies that support greater economic success and improved long term sustainability of the pork industry


Research themes

Research Themes

  • Energy metabolism

    • How to best supply energy to the pig

    • How the pig uses energy for growth

  • Ingredient evaluation

    • Evaluation of ingredients

    • Improved approaches to ingredient evaluation

  • Feeding and management

    • Based on industry input and suggestions


Outline

Outline

  • Concepts of life-cycle feeding of swine

  • Feeding and management: Sows

    • Diet formulation issues

    • Feeding management issues

  • Feeding and management: Gestation

    • Example diets

    • Diet formulation issues

    • Feeding management issues

  • Feeding and management: Lactation

    • Example diets

    • Diet formulation issues

    • Feeding management issues


Production continuum

PRODUCTION CONTINUUM

What occurs in one phase of production often affects outcomes in later phases.

Or

Diagnosing problems in one phase of production often requires consideration of what is happening in earlier phases.

Breeding

Farrowing

Nursery

Growout


Life cycle feeding objectives

Life cycle feeding objectives

  • To ensure that the feeding of animals in one phase of the production system does not impair production later in life

Market

Gestation

Lactation

Growout

Nursery


Life cycle feeding objectives1

Life cycle feeding objectives

  • By understanding the implications of life-cycle feeding, achieve production objectives at the lowest possible cost


Livestock feeding ans 320 swine feeding and management lecture 1 april 13

WHAT GETS MEASURED

GETS MANAGED

OR

YOU CANNOT MANAGE

WHAT YOU CANNOT MEASURE


The decision making process

The decision-making process

Perception of

Risk

versus

Perception of

Reward


Accuracy versus precision

Accuracy versus Precision

High accuracy

High precision

Low accuracy

High precision

High accuracy

Low precision

Low accuracy

Low precision

Source: Rutherford and Moughan, 2000


Livestock feeding ans 320 swine feeding and management lecture 1 april 13

Feeding and Management: Sows


Framework for developing feeding programs

Framework for Developing Feeding Programs

Nutrient Requirements

Nutrient Supply

Feeding Program

Functional Properties

Pork Quality

Profitability

Sustainability


Life cycle feeding

Life cycle feeding

  • Gestation feeding affects:

    • Sow condition at farrowing

    • Feed intake during lactation

      • Sows that get too fat in gestation eat less in lactation

    • Piglet birth weight

      • Response is very small

    • Cost of feeding the breeding herd

      • Feeding too much feed or too rich a diet increases feed costs with no benefits, possibly detriments

    • Well-being of the sow

      • Thin sows are easily chilled and more susceptible for illness


Life cycle feeding1

Life cycle feeding

  • Lactation feeding affects:

    • Sow condition at weaning

      • Affects subsequent reproduction

    • Litter weaning weights

      • Sows will “milk off their back” but this is both inefficient and ineffective, compared to feeding the sow correctly

    • Cost of feeding the breeding herd

      • Feeding too much feed or too rich a diet increases feed costs with no benefits, possibly detriments

    • Well-being of the sow

      • Thin sows are easily chilled and more susceptible for illness


Tracking actual sow feed usage gestation feed

Tracking actual sow feed usage: Gestation feed

Example: 3,500 sow herd using 1,020 tons of gestation feed over 4 months.

Average daily gestation feed disappearance

= 1,220 tons X 2,000 lb/ton

3,300 crates X 166 days

= 2,440,000

547,800

= 4.45 lb/sow/day


Tracking actual sow feed usage lactation feed option 1

Tracking actual sow feed usage: Lactation feed: Option 1

Example: 3,500 sow herd with 525 crates farrows 2,950 litters using 325 tons of lactation feed over 4 months

Average daily lactation feed disappearance

= 325 tons X 2,000 lb/ton

525 crates X 122 days

= 650,000

64,050

= 10.1 lb/sow/day

[Under-estimates actual usage, due to empty crates, or pre-farrowed sows in crates. Must know this information to use the information effectively.]


Tracking actual sow feed usage lactation feed option 2

Tracking actual sow feed usage: Lactation feed: Option 2

Example: 3,500 sow herd with 525 crates farrows 2,950 litters using 325 tons of lactation feed over 4 months

Average daily lactation feed disappearance; ave. lactation 19 d

= 325 tons X 2,000 lb/ton

2950 litters X 19 days

= 650,000

56,050

= 11.6 lb/sow/day

[Over-estimates actual usage, because feed given to sows prior to farrowing is included. Must know this information to use the information effectively.]


Recommended nutrient levels for lactating sows and gilts a

Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Giltsa

aAssumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine


Dietary tid lysine level based upon litter weaning weight and sow feed intake

Dietary TID Lysine Level Based Upon Litter Weaning Weight and Sow Feed Intake


Suggested tid amino acid ratios for sows

Suggested TID Amino Acid Ratios for Sows


Recommended nutrient levels for lactating sows and gilts a1

Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Giltsa

aAssumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine cMenadione


Recommended nutrient levels for lactating sows and gilts a2

Recommended Nutrient Levels for Lactating Sows and Giltsa

aAssumes 12 lb/day feed intake of a diet containing 0.87% TID lysine

bTrace minerals and vitamins levels added to the diet


Recommended maximum concentrations of toxin in swine diets

Recommended Maximum Concentrations of Toxin in Swine Diets

a Concentration not determined

Modified from Michigan State University


Livestock feeding ans 320 swine feeding and management lecture 1 april 13

Feeding and Management: Gestation


Example gestation diets

Example Gestation Diets


Example gestation diets1

Example Gestation Diets

aThe available phosphorus equivalency includes the phosphorus release due to inclusion of phytase in the vitamin premix.


Gestation feeding challenges

Gestation feeding challenges

  • Optimize lifetime sow productivity, as a means of maximizing herd profitability

  • Over-feeding sows in gestation reduces feed intake in lactation

  • Under-feeding sows in gestation impairs reproductive performance and animal well-being (shoulder sores)

  • Avoid mycotoxins; this may be the worst place to feed mycotoxin contaminated feed


Gestation feeding targets

Gestation feeding targets

  • Body condition score between 3 and 3.5 – for ALL sows

    • Avoid sows that are too fat or too thin

  • Backfat levels of 0.75” to 0.80” at farrowing (measured at last rib, 2.5” to 3.0” off the midline)

    • Avoid bf less than 0.55” at weaning

  • Adjust feed intake according to body weight and backfat

  • Very thin sows have higher maintenance energy requirements, because they have lower insulation levels and are often more active.


Gestation feeding program

Gestation feeding program

  • Sows must be limit fed during gestation; otherwise they become too fat

  • Do not feed more than 4 to 5 lb per day for the first 3 weeks after breeding; excess intake lowers fetal survival

  • Feed 4.0 to 4.5 lb of a corn-soybean meal diet per day, adjusting as required for body condition

  • Increase feed allowance by 2 lb during the last 21 days of gestation

    • Increases gut capacity to support maximum intake in lactation

    • Recognizes that most fetal growth occurs during the final 3 weeks of gestation.

    • Exception if over-fat sows


Limit feeding gestating sows

Limit feeding gestating sows

  • Easily accomplished in gestation stalls

    • Automatic drops MUST be calibrated regularly, to ensure the sow is receiving what you think she should be receiving.

  • More difficult to achieve in group housing systems

    • Key rule: to successfully feed sows in group housed gestation, remove competition for feed. The greater the competition among sows for feed, the less successful the housing system will be.

    • Options:

      • Electronic sow feeders

      • Walk-in-lock-in feeding stalls

      • Trickle feeders

      • Floor feeding, with multiple drops, spreading out supply of feed throughout the pen. Including dividers within the pen helps


Energy and feed lb day required to maintain body weight

Energy and Feed (lb/day) Required to Maintain Body Weight


Energy and feed lb day required for backfat gain above requirement for maintenance

Energy and Feed (lb/day) Required For Backfat Gain Above Requirement For Maintenance


Feeding levels lb day for gestating sows based on backfat and weight category at breeding

Feeding Levels (lb/day) For Gestating Sows Based on Backfat and Weight Category at Breeding

Based on a diet containing 1,500 kcal ME/lb (corn-soybean meal).


Case study

Case study

You are managing a large sow herd, and your records indicate that sow productivity is a modest 23 pigs per sow per year (p/s/y). You realize that financial success is unlikely unless you elevate this level of productivity to at least 26 p/s/y.

Reviewing the PigChamp records, you note the following:

  • Non-productive sow days (NPD) is well above target (63)

  • Weanling to re-breeding interval is acceptable (5.8)

  • Percent bred by 7 days is unacceptable (88)

  • Percent repeats is excessive (12)

  • Numbers born and born alive is unacceptable (11.9/11.0)

    You are confident that your genetics and breeding management are capable of achieving your sow productivity target. You take a walk through your gestation barn; what would you expect to see and what feeding and feeding management actions would you undertake to correct the problems?


Livestock feeding ans 320 swine feeding and management lecture 1 april 13

Feeding and Management: Lactation


Example lactation diets

Example Lactation Diets

a If adding fat, substitute for grain on an equal weight basis


Example lactation diets1

Example Lactation Diets

bThe available phosphorus equivalency includes the phosphorus release due to inclusion of phytase in the vitamin premix.


Feed intake

Feed intake

One of the greatest challenges in feeding the nursing sow is maximizing feed intake

  • Low feed intake leads to low nutrient intake

  • Low nutrient intake leads to:

    • Lower weaning weights

    • Loss of sow body condition

    • Increased sow culling

    • Impaired rebreeding and subsequent litter size


Effects of lactation feeding level on litter and pig performance

Effects of Lactation Feeding Level on Litter and Pig Performance

NB – Restricted were fed 25% less than ab libitum


Lactation feeding program

Lactation feeding program

  • Small amount of feed on day of farrowing

    • Hungry sows are restless and more likely to over-lay piglets

    • Sows typically will not eat much feed; farrowing room is very warm and fed deteriorates quickly

  • Day 1 – 2: Limit fed modestly; do not want to limit feed very much

  • Days 3+: Keep fresh feed in front of the sows at all times


Feeding strategy for lactating sows

Feeding Strategy for Lactating Sows


Factors affecting feed intake 1

Factors affecting feed intake - 1

  • Feed delivery

    • Pigs cannot eat feed that isn’t in front of them! By the 3rd day of lactation, sows should have feed in front of them all of the time

    • Feeding 3 to 4 times per day is preferred to feeding once or twice.

  • Density of the diet

    • Pigs eat more of a low density (low energy) diet, up to the volumetric capacity of their stomach

  • Temperature

    • High temperature discourages feed intake; low temperature encourages feed intake

    • If the temperature is too cold, or conditions are drafty and damp, part of the energy consumed by the sow will be needed to maintain thermal homeostasis


Factors affecting feed intake 2

Factors affecting feed intake - 2

  • Genetics

    • Some lines of pigs have a naturally higher appetite. If using a low appetite line of pigs, even greater attention must be directed at maximizing feed intake

  • Palatability

    • It is important to note that the important factor here is what the pig considers palatable, not what the producer “thinks” is palatable.

  • Nutrient balance

    • Imbalances among, for example, amino acids will reduce feed intake

  • Body condition and reproductive cycle feeding

    • If sows are overfed in gestation, they will accrue more body fat and this tends to impair feed intake during lactation


Factors affecting feed intake 3

Factors affecting feed intake - 3

  • Feeder design

    • Large feed troughs tend to increase feed intake

    • Wet/dry feeders tend to increase feed intake

  • Access to water

    • Water is particularly critical to a lactating sow

    • A sow weaning 11 piglets at 3 weeks of age weighing 13 lb will be producing an average of 2.5 gallons of milk per day!


How much lactation feed is enough

How much lactation feed is enough?

Example

  • Piglets are gaining 11.5 lb during 19d nursing period

  • Sow is weaning 10.5 piglets per litter

  • Total weight gain is 120.8 lb, or (120.8/19) 6.4 lb/d

  • Estimated energy req’t is 3.6 Mcal DE/lb litter gain

  • Daily energy requirement would be (6.4 X 3.6) 23.0 Mcal DE/d, or 21.9 Mcal ME/d

  • Diet ME content is 1.45 Mcal ME/lb

  • Therefore, sow must eat 15.1 lb feed/d

  • Is this possible?

  • If yes, what actions can producer take to maximize intake?

  • If no, what options are available to 1) the sow, or 2) the producer?


Fibre in lactation diets

Fibre in lactation diets

  • Nursing sows are susceptible to constipation

  • Constipation can be treated by using:

    • Fiber

      • Wheat midds (±20%)

      • Soybean hulls (±10%)

      • Alfalfa meal (±25%)

      • Sugar beet pulp (7±%)

      • Oats (±20%)

        (Risk: Use of fibrous ingredients will lower diet energy density and may compromise sow’s ability to consume sufficient energy

    • Chemical laxatives

      • MgSO4 (Epsom salts: 30 lb/ton)

      • NaSO4 (Glauber salts: 60 lb/ton)

        (Risk: Chemical laxatives are harsh; should be used carefully)


Lactation feeding quandary

Lactation feeding quandary

  • In order to maximize sow feed intake, she wants the room kept as cool as possible

  • In order to maximize piglet growth and well-being, they want the room to be kept very warm

  • If the room is kept too cool for the piglets, they will huddle with the sow, increasing the risk of being over-lain

    • Increased mortality due to overlays is often related to a room temperature that is too cool

      Compromise

  • Keep the farrowing room temperature elevated during farrowing and the first 24 to 36 hours post-farrowing, to get the piglets off to a good start.

  • Lower the temperature to 68 to 72⁰F thereafter and provide zone heating for the piglets

  • Feed intake declines by about 0.2 lb/d per ⁰F above 68⁰F


Further reading

Further reading

  • Paper 1

  • Paper 2

  • Paper 3

  • Paper 4


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