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PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez. Stereotyping, Prejudice, & Discrimination Part II. How Stereotypes Affect their Targets. Target’s Perspective. Stereotype threat Misunderstandings in Interracial Interactions How can prejudice be reduced?. Stereotype and Social Identity Threat. Stereotype threat

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PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez

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Psy 321 dr sanchez

PSY 321Dr. Sanchez

Stereotyping, Prejudice, & Discrimination Part II


How stereotypes affect their targets

How Stereotypes Affect their Targets


Target s perspective

Target’s Perspective

  • Stereotype threat

  • Misunderstandings in Interracial Interactions

  • How can prejudice be reduced?


Stereotype and social identity threat

Stereotype and Social Identity Threat

  • Stereotype threat

    • the apprehension experienced by members of group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype in a particular domain

    • individual does not have to believe the stereotype for it to shape performance


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Steele & Aronson (1995, Study 1)

  • Black and White Ps

  • Make racial stereotype of intelligence salient

    • Diagnostic of ability

    • Nondiagnostic (control)

  • Examine test performance on a challenging verbal test.


Steele aronson 1995 study 1

Steele & Aronson (1995, Study 1)


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Steele & Aronson (1995, Study 2)

  • Black and White Ps

  • Make racial stereotype of intelligence salient

    • Indicate Race

    • No race question

  • Examine test performance on a challenging verbal test.


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Steele & Aronson (1995, Study 2)


Stereotype threat

Stereotype Threat

  • General Features

    • Threat is situational

    • Domain connected

      • Strength varies with identification with domain

    • About social identity  applies to many groups

      • Women in science, athletes, elderly individuals, SES, …….even Whites!


Stereotype threat1

Stereotype Threat

  • Research on Meta-stereotypes

    • Whites concerned with appearing prejudiced (Vorauer, Hunter, Main, & Roy,

      2000; Vorauer, Main, & O’Connell, 1998; Vorauer & Kumhyr, 2001)

    • Concerns can influence judgments, behaviors, performance on measures of racial attitudes


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Stereotype Threat(Frantz, Cuddy, Burnett, Hart, & Ray, 2005)

  • Self-relevant negative stereotype in a particular domain

    • “Whites are racists.”

  • Personidentifies with that domain

    • “I’m egalitarian.”

  • Performance in the situation is diagnostic

    • “I might validate the stereotype.”


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Stereotype and Social Identity Threat

  • Investigation of whether stereotype threat is operating during an implicit test of prejudice

  • Hypothesis

    • Participants show more racial bias on implicit test when they believe the test is diagnostic of racism.

  • 3 conditions

    • Explicit threat condition

    • Explicit no-threat condition

    • No instructions condition


Explicit threat instructions

Explicit Threat Instructions

  • “The IAT compares your attitudes towards two different racial groups. It is a measure of racial bias. In this study, we are interested in measuring your unconscious racial attitudes toward Blacks and Whites as accurately as possible... This is a challenging task, but it's necessary for the aim of this study. Please try hard to help us in our analysis of individual's racial attitudes.”


Explicit no threat instructions

Explicit No-Threat Instructions

  • “The IAT is a measure of knowledge of cultural stereotypes. In this study, we are interested in measuring the extent to which people are aware of cultural stereotypes... This is a challenging task, but it's necessary for the aim of this study. Please try hard to help us in our analysis of people's knowledge of cultural stereotypes. ”


No instructions condition

No-Instructions Condition

  • “This is a challenging task, but it's necessary for the aim of this study. Please try hard.”


Psy 321 dr sanchez

Stereotype and Social Identity Threat


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Stereotypes and Multiple Identities

Not Good at Math

Good at Math


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Multiple Identities(Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady,1999)

  • Remind Asian-American women of their

    • Asian identity (questions about languages spoken, race, etc.)

    • Female identity (questions about co-ed housing)

    • Neither identity (questions about telephone service)

  • Take a math test


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Multiple Identities(Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady,1999)


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Interpersonal Concerns with Prejudice

  • Whites

    • Concern with being perceived as prejudiced (Vorauer, Hunter, Main, & Roy, 2000; Vorauer, Main, & O’Connell, 1998; Vorauer & Kumhyr, 2001)

    • Concerns influence social judgments about and during interracial contact

  • Blacks

    • Concern with being treated negatively because of prejudice and being perceived stereotypically (Mendoza-Denton et al., 2002; Shelton, 2003)

    • Concerns influence social judgments about and during interracial contact


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Interpersonal Concerns with Prejudice

  • Whites and Blacks

    • Harbor fear of rejection because of their group memberships

    • Fear that out-group members will perceive them in a way that threatens their identity(Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2003)


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Pluralistic Ignorance

People observe others behaving similarly to themselves but believe that the same behaviors reflect different feelings and beliefs (Miller & McFarland, 1987, 1991)


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Pluralistic Ignorance

  • Own behavior

    • Reflect fears of social exclusion

  • Other person’s behavior

    • Taken at face value

    • Reflects the person’s true feelings


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Divergent Attributions

  • Predictions

    • Attribute own failure to make the first move to fear of being rejected

    • Attribute potential partner’s failure to make the first move to lack of interest


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Divergent Attributions

You enter the dining hall for dinner. You are alone because your close friends are in a review session. As you look around the dining hall for a place to sit, you notice several White (Black) students who live near you sitting together. These students also notice you. However, neither of you explicitly makes a move to sit together.


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Divergent Attributions

  • Fear of Rejection

    • How likely is that fear of being rejected because of your race would inhibit you from sitting with these students?

  • Lack of Interest

    • How likely is that your lack of interest in getting to know these students would inhibit you from sitting with them?

  • Answered for self and other (counterbalanced)

  • 7-point scale where 1 = not at all and 7 = very much


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Black Participants with White Partner


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White Participants with Black Partner


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Black Participants with Black Partner


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White Participants with White Partner


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Divergent Attributions

  • Blacks and Whites

    • Make divergent attributions for own and out-group members’ avoidance of interracial contact

    • Interpersonal Concerns with Prejudice

      • I’m afraid of being rejected!

      • They lack interest in interacting!

    • Misunderstanding occurs even before the interaction


What can we do

What Can We Do?

  • Repeated Intergroup Contact that involves

    • Common goals

    • Equal status

    • Supportive norms

    • Personalized interactions

  • Individuation

  • Common In-Group Identity


Jigsaw classroom aronson 1978

Jigsaw Classroom(Aronson, 1978)

  • Students separated into diverse six-person learning groups

  • Lesson divided into six parts

  • Like pieces of puzzle, each of the six parts is required to see the whole picture

  • Each student learns her/his piece, then teaches the rest of the group

  • They need each other to do well on the test

  • Prejudice diminishes


Jigsaw classroom why does it work

Jigsaw Classroom: Why does it Work?

  • Cooperation leads to recategorization: no longer “us” and “them”

  • When people help others, they feel more positive toward those others

    • Helping  Liking

  • Cooperation increases empathy


Self esteem in u s minority groups

Self-Esteem in U.S. Minority Groups

From J. M. Twenge and J. Crocker, “Race and Self-Esteem: Meta-Analysis Comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 128, 2002, pp. 371-408.


Coping with stigma

Coping with Stigma

  • Stigma = having an attribute that is viewed as inferior, deficient, etc.

  • 1) attributing negative feedback to prejudice

  • (2) comparing outcomes with those of their ingroup

  • (3) selectively devaluing areas in which their group does poorly and valuing dimensions in which their group excels


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