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WORLD WAR II. ALLIED INVASIONS. War in Africa. Fighting begins in Africa in 1940 when Italian forces based in Libya attacked British-controlled Egypt Italy wants an African empire The British need to protect the Suez Canal, since it was the shipping route to the oil fields of the Middle East

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WORLD WAR II

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World war ii

WORLD WAR II

ALLIED INVASIONS


War in africa

War in Africa

  • Fighting begins in Africa in 1940 when Italian forces based in Libya attacked British-controlled Egypt

    • Italy wants an African empire

    • The British need to protect the Suez Canal, since it was the shipping route to the oil fields of the Middle East

    • The British eliminate the Italian threat and even invade Libya – the Italians were now on the defensive

      • Feb. 1941 – 30,000 British soldiers capture 130,000 Italian prisoners, gain 500 miles

      • Only lost 500 men and Ethiopia is freed


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  • Hitler steps in and sends the Desert Fox

    • The new German and Italian force was called the Afrika Korps and was led by General Erwin Rommel

      • He pushes the British out of Libya and back into Egypt

      • Rommel and the British go back and forth

    • The Afrika Korps lacks supplies – Rommel is outnumbered and has less fire power

    • Battle of El Alamein (Oct. 1942)

      • British General Montgomery takes advantage of Rommel’s supply problems

      • Rommel retreats 2,000 miles


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  • Operation Torch – the Allied Invasion of Africa

    • Stalin wants the Allies to invade Europe to open up a second front

      • The U.S. and especially the British decide to invade Africa instead

    • Nov. 1942 – three amphibious landings in the French colonies of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco

      • Led by American general Dwight Eisenhower

      • Landed with 107,000 Allied troops and the Vichy-controlled colonies soon joined

      • As a result, Germany occupies all of France

    • Rommel is in trouble, has Allied forces to the east and west


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  • Rommel goes to Berlin to plead for more troops and weapons

  • May 1943 the Afrika Korps surrenders and the war in Africa is over

    • 250,000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner and the Allies control all of North Africa


  • Invasion of italy

    Invasion of Italy

    • Known as Operation Husky (June 1943)

      • The Allies invade the island of Sicily first

      • The Italians remove Mussolini from power

        • Italy leaves the war in September

        • Sicily is captured a few weeks later

      • The Allies next invade mainland Italy

        • Germany sends Rommel to defend northern Italy

        • German resistance slows the Allies

        • They reach Rome by May 1944

        • Don’t gain total control of Italy until five days before Germany surrenders


    Battle of the atlantic and berlin

    Battle of the Atlantic and Berlin

    • Battle of the Atlantic

      • Germany relied once again on U-boats since they couldn’t match the battleships of Great Britain

        • The German U-boat fleet consisted of 400 subs

        • They fought in wolf packs for protection

        • Sank 2,452 merchant ships and 174 warships at a cost of thousands of lives and millions of dollars

      • Eventually the Allies won control of the Atlantic

        • Better-equipped convoys that hunted and destroyed the U-boats

        • Allies had broken the German code, knew the location of the U-boats


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    • Battle of Berlin

      • November 1943 to spring 1944

        • Allies bomb Berlin and other cities

        • Also bomb railways and infrastructure in France


    Tehran conference

    Tehran Conference

    • Nov. 1943 – meeting of the Allied Powers

      • Main issue was the plan to launch the cross-channel invasion

      • Decide to create the United Nations to replace the failed League of Nations

        • Would be dominated by Britain, U.S., the Soviet Union, and France


    Invasion of france

    Invasion of France

    • American generals Eisenhower and Marshall are put in charge

      • Assemble and train troops, also develop specialized equipment to transport troops and tanks across the channel

      • Fake out Hitler – complex plan to mislead Hitler about where the invasion would take place

        • Hitler doesn’t know where the attack will happen, sends Rommel to defend the coast of several nations

        • Rommel builds the Atlantic Wall


    World war ii

    • D-Day June 6, 1944

      • Operation Overlord – Allied forces invade France

      • 150,000 troops land on the beaches of Normandy and force their way through German defenses

      • High amount of casualties, but D-Day was a huge victory

    • With the beaches secured, more Allied troops sent in

      • 1 million soldiers in France by the end of June

      • The Allies quickly reconquered most of France and Paris is freed in August


    Battle of the bulge

    Battle of the Bulge

    • Dec. 1944 – the Germans launch a massive counterattack in Belgium

      • The Germans advance, creating a bulge in the Allied battle lines

      • By Jan. 1945 the Allies regain the land and crush the German offensive

    • Within two months the Allied forces had crossed the Rhine River into Germany and were racing towards Berlin


    Allied invasions

    Allied Invasions

    AlliesCodeWho does Hitler

    InvadeNamesend to defend


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