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Motivation. Chapter 12. Motivation. Defining motivation The hungry animal: Motives to eat The social animal: Motives to love The erotic animal: Motives for sex The competent animal: Motives to achieve Motives, values, and well-being. Defining Motivation.

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Motivation

Chapter 12


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Motivation

  • Defining motivation

  • The hungry animal: Motives to eat

  • The social animal: Motives to love

  • The erotic animal: Motives for sex

  • The competent animal: Motives to achieve

  • Motives, values, and well-being


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Defining Motivation

  • A inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation.

    • Intrinsic motivation

      • The pursuit of activity for its own sake.

    • Extrinsic motivation

      • The pursuit of an activity for external rewards such as money or fame.


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The Hungry Animal: Motives to Eat

  • The genetics of weight

  • Culture, psychology, and weight

  • Weight and health: Body versus culture


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The Genetics of Weight

  • Research suggests that heavy people are no more and no less emotionally disturbed than average weight people.

  • Heaviness is not always caused by overeating.

  • Set point

    • The genetically influenced weight range for an individual, maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves and metabolism.

  • Identical twins weigh and gain weight similarly.

  • The complexity of mechanisms governing appetite and weight explains why “appetite suppressing” drugs fail in the long run.


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Body Weights of Twins

  • Identical twins are more similar in body weight than fraternal

    • Same whether raised together or apart

  • Genetic factors play a large role in body weight


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Culture, Psychology, and Weight

  • The environment and obesity

  • Cultural attitudes


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The Environment and Obesity

  • Environmental factors related to weight gain:

    • Increased abundance of low-cost, varied high fat meals.

    • The habit of eating high calorie food on the run instead of leisurely meals.

    • The rise in energy saving devices such as remote controls.

    • The speed and conveniences of driving rather than walking or biking.

    • The preference for watching television or videos instead of exercising.


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Cultural Attitudes

  • In many cultures, where food is a rarer commodity, fat is viewed as a sign of health and affluence in men, sexual desirability in women.

  • While people of all ethnicities and social classes have been getting heavier, the cultural ideal for white women has been getting thinner.

  • The cultural ideal for men has also changed.

    • Muscles used to mean a working class, now muscular bodies symbolize affluence.


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Cultural Attitudes

  • Although more Canadian men than women are overweight or obese, more Canadian women are currently dieting, even when their weight is in the healthy range.

  • Regardless of actual weight, research has shown that Canadian teenage girls wanted to lose weight, while most boys wanted to gain weight.

  • Cultural norms appear in the teens and persist into adulthood.


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Weight and Health: Biology versus Culture

  • People from cultures that regard overweight as a sign of health and sexiness are more likely to be obese.

  • People from cultures emphasizing thinness are more likely to have eating disorders.

  • Many with eating disorders reflect an irrational terror of being “too fat.”

    • Bulimia

    • Anorexia nervosa


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Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa

  • Bulimia

    • An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating (binges) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging).

  • Anorexia Nervosa

    • An eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation.


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Ideal Body Image

  • Which image is ideal for your sex?

  • Which comes closest to your own body?


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Influences on Eating Disorders

  • Presence of extremely slim television stars.

  • Genes or set points which conflict with cultural standard.

  • Conflict between desire to achieve and perception of parent’s messages about a “woman’s place.”

  • Increase in male responsiveness to cultural expectations may be related to their desire to be more “manly.”


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The Social Animal: Motives to Love

  • The psychology of love

  • The ingredients of love

  • Attachment theory of love

  • Gender, culture, and love


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The Psychology of Love

  • The need for affiliation

    • The motive to associate with other people, by seeking friends, companionship, or love.

  • Predictors of love

    • Proximity

      • Choosing friends and lovers from the set of people who are closest to us.

    • Similarity

      • Choosing friends and lovers who are like us in looks, attitudes, beliefs, personality, and interests.


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The Ingredients of Love

  • Sternberg’s Triangular theory of love

    • Passion

      • Euphoria and sexual excitement.

    • Intimacy

      • Being free to talk about things, feeling close to and understood by loved ones.

    • Commitment

      • Needing to be with the other person; being loyal.

  • Ideal love involves all three.


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The Attachment Theory of Love

  • Like infants have attachment styles to their caregivers, adults have attachment styles to their partners.

    • Secure or rarely jealous or worried about being abandoned.

    • Avoidant or distrustful and avoids intimate attachments.

    • Anxious ambivalent or agitated and worried that partner will leave.

  • Adult style is related to infant style.


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Distribution of attachment style

  • A representative survey of adults indicated:

    • Securely attached33%

    • Avoidant25%

    • Anxious11%


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Gender, Culture, and Love

  • Males and females respond similarly to:

    • Love at first sight

    • Passionate love

    • Companionate love

    • Unrequited love

    • Being the break-up recipient


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Gender, Culture, and Love

  • Men and women different in

    • How they express love

      • Men-doing; women-saying.

    • How they define intimacy

      • Men-hanging out; women-sharing feelings.

  • Men and women used to have different goals in choices of partners

    • Men-more romantic; Women-more pragmatic.

    • As more women have become economically self-sufficient, differences have decreased.


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Sex Differences in Marriage Age

  • Men tend to marry younger women

    • This age difference increases with man’s age

  • Women tend to marry men who are slightly older

    • This changes little with age

Based on U.S. marriage statistics for the 1980’s


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The Erotic Animal: Motives for Sex

  • The Biology of Desire

  • The Psychology of Desire

  • The Culture of Desire

  • The Riddle of Sexual Orientation


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The Biology of Desire

  • Hormones and sexual response

  • Arousal and orgasm


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Hormones and Sexual Response

  • Testosterone appears to promote sexual desire in both sexes.

  • Documentation included several studies of men and women.

  • However, this is not a simple relationship.

    • Sexual behaviour also increases testosterone.

    • Psychological factors are usually more important than hormones.

    • Sexual offenders who are chemically castrated don’t always lose sexual desires.


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Arousal and Orgasm

  • Freud differentiated between “immature” clitoral orgasms and “mature” vaginal orgasms in women.

  • Kinsey suggested that males and females had similar orgasms but that females were less sexual.

  • Masters and Johnson asserted that women’s capacity for sexual responses surpassed men’s.

    • Didn’t examine differences based on developmental, experiential or cultural factors.


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Arousal and Orgasm

  • What we know now

    • Physiological responses don’t always correlate with subjective experiences.

    • Psychologists still disagree on whether there are sex differences in sex drive.

    • Social psychologists suggest that males sexual behaviour is more biologically determined while females sexual desires and responsiveness are more affected by circumstances, the specific relationship and cultural norms.


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The Sexual-Response Cycle


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The Psychology of Desire

  • Motives for sex include:

    • Enhancement

    • Intimacy

    • Coping

    • Self-Affirmation

    • Partner Approval

    • Peer Approval


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Sexual Coercion and Rape

  • Persistent gender differences occur in perceptions of, and experiences with, sexual coercion.

    • 29% of female undergraduates reported having experienced at least one incident of sexual assault.

    • Only 6% of all sexual assaults in Canada are reported to police, due possibly to the fact that most women know their male attackers.

    • Men are far more likely than women to admit coercing a partner into sex - using alcohol, drugs, threats, or actual physical force.


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Possible Motivations for Rape

  • Peer approval

  • General anger

  • Revenge

  • The desire to dominate

  • Anger at women or the world


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The Culture of Desire

  • Sexual Scripts

    • Sets of implicit rules that specify proper sexual behaviour for a person in a given situation, varying with the person’s age, culture, and gender.


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The Riddle of Sexual Orientation

  • Factors which do not explain homosexuality:

    • A smothering mother.

    • An absent father.

    • Emotional problems.

    • Same sex play in childhood and adolescence.

    • Parental practices.

    • Role models.

    • Seduction by an older adult.


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Biological Explanations for Homosexuality

  • Studies demonstrating brain differences have not been replicated.

  • Prenatal exposure to androgens.

  • May be moderately heritable.


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Sexual Orientation: Genetic Links

  • Identical twins have highest concordance (similarity) rates for sexual orientation

    • Same pattern for males and females

  • This suggests some genetic link in sexual orientation


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Difficulty in finding origin of homosexuality

  • Sexual identity and behaviour are different and can occur in different combinations.

    • Some are sexually attracted to both men and women.

    • Some are heterosexual in behaviour but have homosexual fantasies.

  • Sexual behaviours can differ in different cultures.


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The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve

  • The Effects of Motivation on Work

  • The Effects of Work on Motivation


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The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve

  • Need for achievement

    • A learned motive to meet personal standards of success and excellence in a chosen area.

    • The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test that asks people to invent stories about ambiguous pictures which are then scored for unconscious motives such as the need for achievement, power, or affiliation.


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The Importance of Goals

  • Goals improve motivation when:

    • The goal is specific

    • The goal is challenging but achievable

    • The goal is framed in terms of approach goals instead of avoidance goals

      • Approach goals are framed as getting what is wanted.

      • Avoidance goals are framed in terms of avoiding unpleasant experiences.


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Types of Goals

  • Performance Goals

    • Goals framed in terms of performing well in front of others, being judged favourably, and avoiding criticism.

  • Mastery (Learning) Goals

    • Goals framed in terms of increasing one’s competence and skills.


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Expectations and Self efficacy

  • Self-fulfilling prophecy

    • A expectation that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about.

  • Self-Efficacy

    • A person’s belief that he or she is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and reaching goals.


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The Effects of Work on Motivation

  • Working conditions

  • Opportunities to achieve


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Working Conditions

  • Working conditions that increase job involvement, motivation, and satisfaction include:

    • Work provides a sense of meaningfulness.

    • Employees have control over part of work.

    • Tasks are varied.

    • Company maintains clear and consistent rules.

    • Employees have supportive relationships with superiors and co-workers.

    • Employees receive useful feedback.

    • Company offers opportunities for growth.


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Opportunities to Achieve

  • When person lacks fair chance to make it, he or she may be less than successful.


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Motives, Values and Well-Being

  • Motivational conflicts

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  • Universal psychological needs


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Motivational Conflicts

  • Approach-Approach Conflict

    • Equally attracted to two activities or goals.

  • Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict

    • Choosing between the “lesser of the evils.”

  • Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    • One activity or goal has both positive and negative elements.


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Maslow's Pyramid of Needs

  • Needs arranged in a hierarchy

  • Low-level needs must be met before trying to satisfy higher-level needs

  • Esteem: Status, respect, power

  • Self-actualization: Fulfill one’s potential


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Universal Psychological Needs

  • Autonomy

    • Feeling that choices are based on true interests and values.

  • Competence

    • Feeling able to master hard challenges.

  • Relatedness

    • Feeling close to others who are important to you.

  • Self-esteem

    • Self-respect.


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Universal Psychological Needs


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