Father and son
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“Father and Son”. Paragraph Plan and Samples. Question. Choose a novel or a short story which deals with the effects of evil or war or deceit or a breakdown in society or a breakdown in relationship(s).

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“Father and Son”

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Father and son

“Father and Son”

Paragraph Plan and Samples


Question

Question

Choose a novel or a short story which deals with the effects of evil or war or deceit or a breakdown in society or a breakdown in relationship(s).

Show how any of these negative pressures affects the main character in the novel or short story and go on to show whether or not she or he tackles it successfully.


Paragraph plan

Paragraph Plan

  • Introduction

  • Summary

  • Section 1 –Effects of the Conflict on the father’s health

  • Section 2 – Effects of the conflict on the father’s confidence

  • Section 4 – How he tackles the problem: tries to re-establish the bond by talking to him/questioning for Information.

  • Section 5 – Tries to feed/nurture his son (making him dependent on him)

  • Section 6 – Failure. Why the father’s attempts are unsuccessful

  • Conclusion


1 an introduction must

1) An Introduction Must…

  • Mention the title of the text and the name of the author.

  • Refer to the question and the topics that you will be looking at to answer the question.

    AuthorTitleTechniques

    Reference to the Question


Father and son

“'Father and Son' by Bernard MacLaverty is a short story about the relationship between a widower father and his adult son. The poet uses a variety of literary techniques and narrative structure to expose the theme of conflict to the reader.”


Father and son

Bernard McLaverty’s short story “Father and Son” uses the political tension of the city in which it is set to mirror the conflict between the two eponymous characters. The problems faced by the father and son build up to a dramatic climax, and through his use of setting, characterisation and a significant final scene McLaverty portrays the events of the story in a poignant and eventually shocking way.


Father and son

“'Father and Son' by Bernard MacLavertyis a short story about the relationship between a widower father and his adult son. The author uses a variety ofliterary techniques and narrative structureto expose thetheme of conflictto the reader.”


Father and son

  • In his short story, ‘Father and Son’ Bernard MacLaverty uses techniques such as narrative structure, characterisation and setting to expose the theme of conflict between relatives.


Father and son

  • We can make an introduction less uniform by changing the order in which we introduce these aspects.

  • 1)Author 2)Reference to the Question

  • 3)Title4)Techniques

  • Bernard McLavery exposes the theme of conflict between relatives in his short story “Father and Son”. He achieves this successfully through his use of narrative structure and literary technique.


Your question

Your Question

Choose a novel or a short story which deals with the effects of evil or war or deceit or a breakdown in society or a breakdown in relationship(s).

Show how any of these negative pressures affects the main character in the novel or short story and go on to show whether or not she or he tackles it successfully.

Title: “Father and Son”

Author: Bernard McLaverty

Refer to the question: What is the question asking?

Topics: How are we going to address the question?


Another way to remember this one

Another way to remember this one…

  • Title

  • Author

  • Reference to the question

  • Topics


Write one of your own

Write One of Your Own

  • Decide the order in which you would like to introduce your information.

  • Write a succinct and coherent introduction for your “Father and Son” essay.


Summary

Summary

  • Summarise the story in a succinct manner, mentioning some key themes.

    DON’T RETELL THE WHOLE STORY!


Father and son

Task

  • Let’s note the important aspects of the essay.

    - Where/when is it set?

  • Who is involved?

  • What are the central concerns?

  • What is the climax of the story?


Is this a summary

The story was is set in the 1970s, at this time in Belfast a war was breaking out and tells of the ‘troubles’ were at their height and the conflict on the streets is reflected in the image of “ambulances criss crossing” outside in the city. The conflict on the streets outside is mirrored in the conflict inside the house in the strained relationship between a father and a son. There is no communication between them both and lack of conversation then leads on to consequences they both regret. It is no mistake that the current political situation in Belfast is mirrored within the characters lives.

Is This a Summary?


Summary1

Summary

This story tells us about the strained relationship between an unnamed father and son and whose mutual lack of communication has eventual tragic consequences.


Paragraph structure

Paragraph Structure

Statement – what point do you intend to prove in this paragraph?

Evidence – a quote that backs up your statement

Analysis – explain exactly how you know that your evidence is valid.

Link – Refer back to your statement and indicate what the next step in your argument is going to be?


Paragraph 1

Paragraph 1:

  • Statement:

    McLaverty illustrates the impact of the breakdown in relations between the eponymous characters on the father through his portrayal of the father’s physical health.

    Evidence: Remember to put your quotes into context.


Paragraph 11

Paragraph 1

  • Evidence

    The poor health of the father indicates that he does not look after himself. As he gets ready for work, his son notes that he does not eat anything.

    “I hear him not eating anything.”


Paragraph 12

Paragraph 1

The poor health of the father indicates that he does not look after himself. As he gets ready for work, his son notes that he does not start the day by nourishing himself. He listens to him

“going about the kitchen with a stomach full of wind.”

Analysis: How does this prove that his physical well-being has been compromised by the stress of the conflict?


Paragraph 13

Paragraph 1

The poor health of the father indicates that he does not look after himself. As he gets ready for work, his son is aware that he does not start the day by eating. He listens to him

“going about the kitchen with a stomach full of wind.”

Analysis: The son’s comments on his father’s routine suggest that it is normal for him not to eat. It is a common sign of stress or anxiety for the sufferer to lose interest in food. The son also reflects on the father’s lack of sleep which consolidates the notion that his father is very anxious. The root of the father’s stress is his continuing conflict and alienation from his son. It is ironic that the father does not eat well despite the fact that he constantly focuses on nourishing his son as a symbol of parental love. By showing that his son’s health has priority over his own, the author emphasises the importance of the relationship and the father’s all-consuming desire to recapture their bond.


Father and son

McLaverty illustrates the impact of the breakdown in relations between the eponymous characters on the father through his portrayal of the father’s physical health. The poor health of the father indicates that he does not look after himself. As he gets ready for work, his son is aware that he does not start the day by eating. He listens to him

“going about the kitchen with a stomach full of wind.”

The son’s comments on his father’s routine suggest that it is normal for him not to eat. It is a common sign of stress or anxiety for the sufferer to lose interest in food. The son also reflects on the father’s lack of sleep which consolidates the notion that his father is very anxious. The root of the father’s stress is his continuing conflict and alienation from his son. It is ironic that the father does not eat well despite the fact that he constantly focuses on nourishing his son as a symbol of parental love. By showing that his son’s health has priority over his own, the author emphasises the importance of the relationship and the father’s all-consuming desire to recapture their bond.


Using more evidence

Using More Evidence

  • This paragraph looks pretty complete but you have more evidence to prove your point – don’t be afraid to use it. Simply repeat the Evidence and Analysis steps of the paragraph:

    Attention is also drawn to the father’s dependence on Valium to still his shaking hands.

    “…two Valium and the rest of them rattling in your pocket…”

    The symptom of trembling hands implies that the father may have a nervous disorder. The seriousness of the impact that the breakdown of the parent-child relationship has on the father is indeed very severe. Not only does the father neglect his health, but he is also made medically ill because he cannot cope with the situation.


Father and son

LINK

  • What have we just proven?

    The effect of the breakdown on the father is evident in his health.

  • What are we about to discuss?

    The father’s personality has also been shaped by the conflict.


Father and son

LINK

  • Bernard McLaverty demonstrates that the father physically suffers as a result of being in conflict with his son. The author continues to portray the damage caused in his characterisation of the father.


Paragraph 2

Paragraph 2

  • Statement

    In “Father and Son”, the father’s personality and habits are shown to have changed significantly as a result of the collapse in communication with his son.


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