The city of greenville and greenlink transit gta
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THE CITY OF GREENVILLE AND GREENLINK TRANSIT (GTA). DIESEL EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS EFFORTS. Emissions. NOx (oxides of nitrogen) VOC (volatile organic compounds) Particulates (soot). Ground Ozone Pollution.

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THE CITY OF GREENVILLE AND GREENLINK TRANSIT (GTA)

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The city of greenville and greenlink transit gta

THE CITY OF GREENVILLE AND GREENLINK TRANSIT (GTA)

DIESEL EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS EFFORTS


Emissions

Emissions

  • NOx (oxides of nitrogen)

  • VOC (volatile organic compounds)

  • Particulates (soot)


Ground ozone pollution

Ground Ozone Pollution

  • Ground-level or "bad" ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC.


The city of greenville and greenlink transit gta

Biodiesel

Propane Injection

CNG Engines

Idle Reduction

Vehicle Replacements

Electric Battery Operated Vehicles

Water based Paints

EFFORTS TO DATE


Biodiesel

Biodiesel


The city of greenville and greenlink transit gta

Biofuels are not new!

The first diesel engine ran on peanut oil.


Biodiesel the good

Biodiesel – The good

  • Renewable fuel made domestically

  • Reduces dependence on foreign oil

  • Has environmental (?) and fuel lubricity advantages. May be advantage if running ULSD in older diesel engines.

  • Improved regeneration of DPF’s


The city of greenville and greenlink transit gta

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels


Biodiesel the ugly

Biodiesel – The ugly

It will gel in South Carolina Winters

  • B20

    • 2005

      • Soy Beans Biomass

      • Animal Fat

  • B5


Why not just run pure veggie oil

Why not just run pure veggie oil

  • Unprocessed oil such as vegetable oil can have a significant effect on engine performance over time. It has a much higher viscosity and is less volatile.

  • Producing the Biodiesel (Bio part) requires a process called transesterification which basically cracks the oil and blends it with methanol.


Biodiesel bad

Biodiesel – Bad ???

  • Increased NOx under load


Propane injection

Propane Injection


The city of greenville and greenlink transit gta

TANK

Regulator/Controller

Port into the Air Intake tube


Propane injection1

Propane Injection

  • Average fuel consumption for a rear-loader garbage truck = 25 gallons per day.

  • With propane injection fuel use is 20 gallons of diesel and 4 gallons of propane. Net gain is 1 gallon of fuel.


Propane injection the good

PROPANE INJECTION – The good

  • Increased Power

  • Lower emissions

  • ROI

  • In house installation.


Propane injection maybe bad

PROPANE INJECTION – Maybe Bad

  • 2007 Engines with particulate filter


Cng conversion

CNG Conversion


Cng conversions

CNG Conversions

  • 1998 F850 Ford with Cummins CNG Engine

    • Average mileage 63,987

  • The good

    • Very low emissions

    • Decent reliability in dump trucks


Cng conversions the bad

CNG Conversions- The bad

  • High cost of conversions

  • Weight and Volume of fuel tanks

  • Recertification of fuel tanks every 36 months


Cng conversions the bad1

CNG Conversions- The bad

  • Loss of power (need two speed axle)

  • Cost of dispensing fuel


Idle reduction

Idle Reduction

  • Positive method of reducing NOx emissions

  • State Idling Restrictions for Commercial Vehicles

  • City policy being developed

  • GPS Idling Limiters being evaluated


2010 2011 vehicle replacement

2010/2011 Vehicle Replacement

  • 7 35’ Transit Buses with 2010 engines

  • 2 Combination Sewer Trucks

  • 4 F550 Recycling Trucks

  • 1 Rear Loader Garbage Truck

  • 1 Leaf Vacuum Truck


Dpf filters

DPF Filters


Dpf filter in a transit bus

DPF Filter In A Transit Bus


Electric vehicles

Electric Vehicles

  • 2 Electric Trucks on order for Downtown service

    • Replaces ¾ ton pickup

    • Assembled in Greenville SC

  • 5 Proterra Electric Transit Buses awaiting approval of a grant

    • Assembled in Greenville??


Proterra bus brt

Proterra Bus (BRT)


Proterra electric bus

Proterra Electric Bus


Charges in 5 to 10 minutes

Charges in 5 to 10 minutes

Tucked under the floor of the bus are lithium titanate batteries from Altairnano. The company claims they can cover a 2.5 hour-long bus route after a single five or ten minute rapid charge and says the batteries have an expected lifespan of 12 to 15 years in any climate


Battery pac mounts under floor of bus

Battery Pac mounts under floor of bus


Electric vehicles1

Electric Vehicles

  • 2 Electric Trucks on order for Downtown service

    • Replaces ¾ ton pickup

    • Assembled in Greenville SC

  • 5 Proterra Electric Transit Buses awaiting approval of a grant

  • 2 Electric or hybrid trolleys awaiting grant approval.


Proterra drive unit

Proterra Drive Unit


Reducing voc s

REDUCING VOC’s


Water based paints

Water based Paints

  • NOx + VOC = Ground Level Ozone

  • Most new vehicles are now painted with a water based paint.

  • Accident repairs may still be painted with solvent based paints

  • Water based paints has a very low VOC emissions


Bus painted with water based paint

Bus Painted with Water Based Paint


In conclusion

In Conclusion

  • 1. Anti-Idling efforts

  • 2. Continue to investigate Biodiesel

  • 3. Determine the issues with Propane Injection and DPF’s.

  • 4. Take every opportunity to use battery electric vehicles in all areas of the City fleet.

  • 5. Continue to evaluate our VOC emissions

  • 6. Continue to pursue other opportunities such as Propane conversions


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