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The Microscope. Mr. Gacc/Bakka BHS. Visit www.worldofteaching.com for more free powerpoints. The History. Many people experimented with making microscopes Was the microscope originally made by accident? (Most people were creating telescopes) The first microscope was 6 feet long!!!

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the microscope

The Microscope

Mr. Gacc/Bakka

BHS

Visit www.worldofteaching.com for more free powerpoints

the history
The History
  • Many people experimented with making microscopes
  • Was the microscope originally made by accident? (Most people were creating telescopes)
  • The first microscope was 6 feet long!!!
  • The Greeks & Romans used “lenses” to magnify objects over 1000 years ago.
slide3
The HistoryHans and Zacharias Janssen of Holland in the 1590’s created the “first” compound microscope

Zacharias Jansen

1588-1631

The “First” Microscope

the history1
The History
  • Robert Hooke &
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek

made improvements by working on the lenses

Robert Hooke

1635-1703

Hooke Microscope

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1632-1723

history
History
  • In 1665 Robert Hooke examined a thin slice of cork with a single magnifying lens and observed tiny compartments
  • He gave them the latin name cellulae, meaning small rooms - hence the origin of the term cell.
  • He later observed cells in plant tissues and observed the cells were “fill’d with juices”
history1
History
  • In the early 1700’s Leeuwenhoek looked at pond water and called the microscopic organisms “animalcules”
  • These were the first observations of living cells
  • 1820 - Robert Brown observed a nucleus in orchid cells
history2
History

In 1838, Matthius Schleiden stated all plants are made of cells

Theodor Schwann stated all animals are made of cells .

cell theory 3 parts
Cell Theory - 3 parts

1. Cells are the basic unit of life

In 1855, Rudolf Virchow further extended the cell theory and added:

  • All organisms are composed of one or more cells

3. All cells come from pre-existing cells

how a microscope works
How a Microscope Works

Convex Lenses are

curved glass used to make microscopes

(and glasses etc.)

Convex Lenses bend

light and focus it in

one spot.

how a microscope works1
How a Microscope Works

Ocular Lens

(Magnifies Image)

Objective Lens

(Gathers light,

magnifies and

focuses image

inside body tube)

Body Tube

(Image Focuses)

  • Bending Light: The objective (bottom) convex lens magnifies and focuses (bends) the image inside the body tube and the ocular convex (top) lens of a microscope magnifies it (again).
body tube
Body Tube
  • 1. The body tube holds the objective

lenses and the ocular lens at the proper distance

Diagram

nose piece
Nose Piece
  • 2. The Revolving Nose Piece holds the objective lenses and can be turned to increase the magnification

Diagram

ocular lens or eye lens
Ocular Lens or Eye lens
  • 3. Magnifies the specimen image 10x

Diagram

objective lenses
Objective Lenses
  • 4. The Objective Lenses increase magnification from 4x to 10x to 40x.

Diagram

stage clips
Stage Clips
  • 5. These 2 clips hold the slide/specimen in place on the stage.

Diagram

diaphragm
Diaphragm
  • 6. The Diaphragm controls the amount of light on the slide/specimen

Turn to let more light in or to

make dimmer.

Diagram

light source
Light Source
  • 7. Projects light upwards through the diaphragm, the specimen and the lenses
  • Some have lights, others have mirrors where you must move the mirror to reflect light

Diagram

slide20
Arm
  • 8. Used to support the microscope when carried. Holds the body tube, revolving nose piece and objective lenses.

Diagram

stage
Stage
  • 9. Supports the slide/specimen

Diagram

coarse adjustment knob
Coarse Adjustment Knob
  • 10. Moves the stage up and down (quickly) for focusing your image.
  • Never use coarse adjustment under high power!!!!!

Diagram

fine adjustment knob
Fine Adjustment Knob
  • 11. This knob moves the stage SLIGHTLY to sharpen the image.

Diagram

slide24
Base
  • 12. Supports the microscope

Diagram

magnification1
Magnification
  • To determine your magnification…you just multiply the ocular or eye lens by the objective lens
  • Ocular 10x Objective 40x:10 x 40 = 400

So the object is 400 times “larger”

Objective Lens have

their magnification

written on them.

Ocular lenses usually magnifies by 10x

hand lens 5x
Hand lens - 5x
  • Stereo microscope -

10 - 60x & 3d image

tunneling cell parts organells
Tunneling - cell parts/organells

2 types of electron microscopes

Scanning - 3D image of RBCs & insects

slide31

Ocular Lens

or eye lens

Body Tube

Nose Piece

Arm

Objective

Lenses

Stage

Stage Clips

Coarse Adjustment.

Diaphragm

Fine Adjustment

Light Source

Base

Skip to Magnification Section

using a microscope
Using a Microscope
  • Start on the lowest magnification
  • Don’t use the coarse adjustment knob on high magnification…you’ll break the slide!!!
  • Place slide on stage and lock clips
  • Adjust light source (if it’s a mirror…don’t stand in front of it!)
  • Use fine adjustment to focus
  • Use diaghram for light intensity
caring for a microscope
Caring for a Microscope
  • Clean only with a soft cloth/tissue
  • Make sure it’s on a flat surface
  • Don’t bang it
  • Carry it with 2 HANDS…one on the arm and the other on the base
references
References
  • http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n17/history/neurons1_i.htm
  • Google Images
  • http://science.howstuffworks.com/light-microscope1.htm
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