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The Microscope. Mr. Gacc/Bakka BHS. Visit www.worldofteaching.com for more free powerpoints. The History. Many people experimented with making microscopes Was the microscope originally made by accident? (Most people were creating telescopes) The first microscope was 6 feet long!!!

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The microscope

The Microscope

Mr. Gacc/Bakka

BHS

Visit www.worldofteaching.com for more free powerpoints


The history
The History

  • Many people experimented with making microscopes

  • Was the microscope originally made by accident? (Most people were creating telescopes)

  • The first microscope was 6 feet long!!!

  • The Greeks & Romans used “lenses” to magnify objects over 1000 years ago.


The HistoryHans and Zacharias Janssen of Holland in the 1590’s created the “first” compound microscope

Zacharias Jansen

1588-1631

The “First” Microscope


The history1
The History

  • Robert Hooke &

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek

    made improvements by working on the lenses

Robert Hooke

1635-1703

Hooke Microscope

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1632-1723


History
History

  • In 1665 Robert Hooke examined a thin slice of cork with a single magnifying lens and observed tiny compartments

  • He gave them the latin name cellulae, meaning small rooms - hence the origin of the term cell.

  • He later observed cells in plant tissues and observed the cells were “fill’d with juices”


History1
History

  • In the early 1700’s Leeuwenhoek looked at pond water and called the microscopic organisms “animalcules”

  • These were the first observations of living cells

  • 1820 - Robert Brown observed a nucleus in orchid cells


History2
History

In 1838, Matthius Schleiden stated all plants are made of cells

Theodor Schwann stated all animals are made of cells .


Cell theory 3 parts
Cell Theory - 3 parts

1. Cells are the basic unit of life

In 1855, Rudolf Virchow further extended the cell theory and added:

  • All organisms are composed of one or more cells

    3. All cells come from pre-existing cells


How a microscope works
How a Microscope Works

Convex Lenses are

curved glass used to make microscopes

(and glasses etc.)

Convex Lenses bend

light and focus it in

one spot.


How a microscope works1
How a Microscope Works

Ocular Lens

(Magnifies Image)

Objective Lens

(Gathers light,

magnifies and

focuses image

inside body tube)

Body Tube

(Image Focuses)

  • Bending Light: The objective (bottom) convex lens magnifies and focuses (bends) the image inside the body tube and the ocular convex (top) lens of a microscope magnifies it (again).



Body tube
Body Tube

  • 1. The body tube holds the objective

    lenses and the ocular lens at the proper distance

Diagram


Nose piece
Nose Piece

  • 2. The Revolving Nose Piece holds the objective lenses and can be turned to increase the magnification

Diagram


Ocular lens or eye lens
Ocular Lens or Eye lens

  • 3. Magnifies the specimen image 10x

Diagram


Objective lenses
Objective Lenses

  • 4. The Objective Lenses increase magnification from 4x to 10x to 40x.

Diagram


Stage clips
Stage Clips

  • 5. These 2 clips hold the slide/specimen in place on the stage.

Diagram


Diaphragm
Diaphragm

  • 6. The Diaphragm controls the amount of light on the slide/specimen

Turn to let more light in or to

make dimmer.

Diagram


Light source
Light Source

  • 7. Projects light upwards through the diaphragm, the specimen and the lenses

  • Some have lights, others have mirrors where you must move the mirror to reflect light

Diagram


Arm

  • 8. Used to support the microscope when carried. Holds the body tube, revolving nose piece and objective lenses.

Diagram


Stage
Stage

  • 9. Supports the slide/specimen

Diagram


Coarse adjustment knob
Coarse Adjustment Knob

  • 10. Moves the stage up and down (quickly) for focusing your image.

  • Never use coarse adjustment under high power!!!!!

Diagram


Fine adjustment knob
Fine Adjustment Knob

  • 11. This knob moves the stage SLIGHTLY to sharpen the image.

Diagram


Base

  • 12. Supports the microscope

Diagram



Magnification1
Magnification

  • To determine your magnification…you just multiply the ocular or eye lens by the objective lens

  • Ocular 10x Objective 40x:10 x 40 = 400

So the object is 400 times “larger”

Objective Lens have

their magnification

written on them.

Ocular lenses usually magnifies by 10x


Hand lens 5x
Hand lens - 5x

  • Stereo microscope -

    10 - 60x & 3d image


Electron microscope can focus up 500 000x
Electron Microscopecan focus up 500,000x


Tunneling cell parts organells
Tunneling - cell parts/organells

2 types of electron microscopes

Scanning - 3D image of RBCs & insects


Ocular Lens

or eye lens

Body Tube

Nose Piece

Arm

Objective

Lenses

Stage

Stage Clips

Coarse Adjustment.

Diaphragm

Fine Adjustment

Light Source

Base

Skip to Magnification Section


Using a microscope
Using a Microscope

  • Start on the lowest magnification

  • Don’t use the coarse adjustment knob on high magnification…you’ll break the slide!!!

  • Place slide on stage and lock clips

  • Adjust light source (if it’s a mirror…don’t stand in front of it!)

  • Use fine adjustment to focus

  • Use diaghram for light intensity


Caring for a microscope
Caring for a Microscope

  • Clean only with a soft cloth/tissue

  • Make sure it’s on a flat surface

  • Don’t bang it

  • Carry it with 2 HANDS…one on the arm and the other on the base



References
References

  • http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n17/history/neurons1_i.htm

  • Google Images

  • http://science.howstuffworks.com/light-microscope1.htm


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