The Microscope. History of the Microscope. Magnification (making things appear bigger) has been used for thousands of years. From the time of the Egyptians (1000BC) glass lenses have been used to see the microscopic world. Late 17 th Century. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek made his
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek made his
own simple microscopes. They had
only one lens and they were
handheld. He drew many
microscopic organisms, such as
bacteria, although he didn’t
know what they were at the
time. He is considered
to be the father of microscopy.
Van Leeuwenhoek’s famous description of microbes in tooth plaque (First
edition, Delft in Holland, 12 September 1683, to Francois Aston, Pag.11). Leeuwenhoek’s drawing of short rods of bacilli and bacteria, the spheres of micrococci, and the corkscrew spirillum.
"In the morning I used to rub my teeth with salt and rinse my mouth with water and after eating to clean my molars with a toothpick.... I then most always saw, with great wonder, that in the said matter there were many very little living animalcules, very prettily a-moving. The biggest sort had a very strong and swift motion, and shot through the water like a pike does through the water; mostly these were of small numbers."
Actually he estimated more bacteria in one single drop than the number of inhabitants living in the Dutch Republic at that moment. He also observed that Vinegar and Alcohol could kill some bacteria in the mouth.
At the same time Robert Hooke used a
compound microscope to view cork cells
and living things.
In 1938 James Hillier and Albert Prebus,
graduate students at the University of
Toronto, produced the first functional
electron microscope. Modern electron
microscopes can magnify specimens up
to 10 million times!!!!!!!
1) Simple Microscopes- have only one lens
Magnifying Glass Eye Glasses
2) Compound Microscope- uses 2 lenses to magnify the specimen (one in eyepiece, one near specimen)
*this is the type of microscope we will be using in class
3) Stereomicroscope- gives a 3-D image of the external parts of a specimen (has two eyepieces). This type of microscope is commonly uses during dissections.
4) Electron Microscope- This microscope uses beams of electrons to see the specimen. It can magnify things up to 10 million times. It is this type of microscope that allows us to see the organelles in a cell.