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Chapter 23: Reforms, revolutions and War
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Chapter 23: Reforms, revolutions and War. INSPIRATION FOR REVOLUTION: Enlightenment (Liberty, No Divine Right, Popular Sovereignty, Equality) Peninsulares Vs. Creoles American/ French Revolutions Napoleonic Wars. European Empires: 1660s. MEXICO: 1810: Miguel de Hidalgo

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European Empires: 1660s

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European empires 1660s

Chapter 23: Reforms, revolutions and War



(Liberty, No Divine Right,

Popular Sovereignty, Equality)

Peninsulares Vs. Creoles

American/ French Revolutions

Napoleonic Wars

European Empires: 1660s

European empires 1660s


1810: Miguel de Hidalgo


1821: dictatorship

(free from Spain)

1822: republic

1830s: Southern Mexico

independent states

1855 La Reforma: Benito Juarez

(Zapotec, land reform,

universal male suffrage,

freedom of speech,

limit power of church,

No payment of foreign debt =

Cinco de Mayo)

MexicanRevolution (1911-1920)

Emiliano Zapata

Pancho Villa

(class conflict over land)

Constitution 1917

Land distribution, universal suffrage,

State supported education, labor reform,

Restriction on foreign ownership of

Mexican property)

Latin American Revolutions

European empires 1660s

Simon Bolivar


European empires 1660s

Latin America:

After the Revolutions

Wars disrupted trade

Wars devastated the countryside

and agrarian economy

Caudillos gained power

Geographic barriers to unity

Preservation of social hierarchy

Economic dependency

Inability to effectively industrialize

European empires 1660s

"As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neocolonialism."

— Che Guevara, Marxist revolutionary, 1965



Che Guevara



Diego Rivera

Fidel Castro


European empires 1660s

Anastasio Somoza Debayle


Post WW II: Somoza family

Wealth valued at $60 million

Estimated 50,000 killed during Nicaraguan Revolution,

120,000 exiled, 600,000 made homeless

1955 :Anastasio Somoza Debayle

Head of National Guard


1970s: Opposition grew = Sandinistas (FSLN)

1972: Devastating earthquake

1975: Somoza violent campaign against FSLN (Public reports issued but ignored)

1977: President Jimmy Carter urges Somoza to stop human rights abuses: Somoza lifts state of siege, but then continues…

1979: Nicaraguan Revolution: ousting of dictator, FSLN in power until 1990


1980s:Iran-Contra Affair

European empires 1660s

Liberation Theology

Father Oscar Romero


Romero was shot on 24 March 1980, while celebrating Mass at a small chapel located in a hospital called "La Divina Providencia", one day after a sermon where he had called on Salvadoran soldiers, as Christians, to obey God's higher order and to stop carrying out the government's repression and violations of basic human rights.

European empires 1660s


North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement

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