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European Empires: 1660s

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Chapter 23: Reforms, revolutions and War. INSPIRATION FOR REVOLUTION: Enlightenment (Liberty, No Divine Right, Popular Sovereignty, Equality) Peninsulares Vs. Creoles American/ French Revolutions Napoleonic Wars. European Empires: 1660s. MEXICO: 1810: Miguel de Hidalgo

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Chapter 23: Reforms, revolutions and War

INSPIRATION FOR REVOLUTION:

Enlightenment

(Liberty, No Divine Right,

Popular Sovereignty, Equality)

Peninsulares Vs. Creoles

American/ French Revolutions

Napoleonic Wars

European Empires: 1660s

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MEXICO:

1810: Miguel de Hidalgo

(peasant)

1821: dictatorship

(free from Spain)

1822: republic

1830s: Southern Mexico

independent states

1855 La Reforma: Benito Juarez

(Zapotec, land reform,

universal male suffrage,

freedom of speech,

limit power of church,

No payment of foreign debt =

Cinco de Mayo)

MexicanRevolution (1911-1920)

Emiliano Zapata

Pancho Villa

(class conflict over land)

Constitution 1917

Land distribution, universal suffrage,

State supported education, labor reform,

Restriction on foreign ownership of

Mexican property)

Latin American Revolutions

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Simon Bolivar

(1783-1830)

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Latin America:

After the Revolutions

Wars disrupted trade

Wars devastated the countryside

and agrarian economy

Caudillos gained power

Geographic barriers to unity

Preservation of social hierarchy

Economic dependency

Inability to effectively industrialize

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"As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neocolonialism."

— Che Guevara, Marxist revolutionary, 1965

Cardenas

Somoza

Che Guevara

Neo-Colonialism

Roosevelt

Diego Rivera

Fidel Castro

Sandino

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Anastasio Somoza Debayle

(1925-1980)

Post WW II: Somoza family

Wealth valued at $60 million

Estimated 50,000 killed during Nicaraguan Revolution,

120,000 exiled, 600,000 made homeless

1955 :Anastasio Somoza Debayle

Head of National Guard

ANTI-COMMUNIST

1970s: Opposition grew = Sandinistas (FSLN)

1972: Devastating earthquake

1975: Somoza violent campaign against FSLN (Public reports issued but ignored)

1977: President Jimmy Carter urges Somoza to stop human rights abuses: Somoza lifts state of siege, but then continues…

1979: Nicaraguan Revolution: ousting of dictator, FSLN in power until 1990

______________________________________________________________________

1980s: Iran-Contra Affair

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Liberation Theology

Father Oscar Romero

1917-1980

Romero was shot on 24 March 1980, while celebrating Mass at a small chapel located in a hospital called "La Divina Providencia", one day after a sermon where he had called on Salvadoran soldiers, as Christians, to obey God\'s higher order and to stop carrying out the government\'s repression and violations of basic human rights.

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NAFTA

North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement

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