Empires
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Empires. Of. India & China. India has over a billion people(2 nd largest country in terms of population) The capital is New Delhi. INDIA. Hinduism. There is no single founder of Hinduism

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Empires

Empires

Of

India & China


Empires

  • India has over a billion people(2nd largest country in terms of population)

  • The capital is New Delhi

INDIA


Empires

Hinduism

  • There is no single founder of Hinduism

  • Hindus believe in Brahman which is the belief that everything is a part of unchanging, all powerful spiritual force

  • They also believe in Moksha which is ultimately, the goal of life. It is the union with Brahman

  • Hindus also believe in reincarnation, the rebirth of the soul into another bodily form

  • You can be reborn as another human, or an animal

  • Moksha may take many lifetimes

  • Karma is the belief that all the actions of a persons life affects his or her fate in the next life


Empires

Dharma & Ahimsa

  • Dharma is the religious and moral duties of an individual

  • These duties vary according to class, occupation, gender, or merit for the next life

  • Ahimsa is the principle of nonviolence

  • Jainism is a branch of Hinduism that takes Ahimsa to an extreme.

  • They practice meditation and try to avoid killing anything.

  • Some Jainists even carry around brooms so they won’t step on bugs in front of them.


The maurya empire 321 b c 185 b c

The Maurya Empire 321 B.C. – 185 B.C.

Powerful Empires of India

  • The Maurya Empire was built by Chandragupta

  • It started in the Ganges Valley and grew into the rest of India

  • The capital was Pataliputra

  • It was the largest and most prosperous city at the time

  • This empire consisted of schools, libraries, palaces, and temples

  • There was a huge wall surrounding the entire city


Empires

Gupta Dynasty

  • This empire was 500 years after the Maurya empire

  • The Gupta dynasty united much of India

  • A.D. 320 – 550 was the golden age of India

  • Most of the people were vegetarian Buddhists

  • Trading & Farming flourished

    • Wheat, Rice, Sugar Cain

  • Artisans used materials such as cotton cloth, pottery, and metal ware

  • Mathematicians of India created the “Arabic Numerals” we use today

    • Concept of Zero

    • Decimal system based on 10

  • Physicians used herbs and other remedies for various things

    • To treat illness

    • Setting bones

    • Simple plastic surgery

  • Buddhists built Stupas, large dome shaped shrines

  • Buddhists and Hindu temples were covered in carvings of Gods & Goddesses

  • The Guptas were eventually weakened by Civil war

    • Weak rulers

    • Foreign invaders

    • The Huns overran the Gupta, & destroyed it’s cities & trade

    • Again India split into many kingdoms


  • Empires

    Asoka

    • Asoka is the emperor grandson of Chandragupta

    • Asoka’s reign started from 268 B.C.

    • He eventually converted to Buddhism

    • He rejected violence & resolved to rule by moral example

    • Asoka’s rule brought peace & prosperity

    • He built roads, houses, & hospitals

    • India was divided into the Deccan (south) and the Aryan (north)

    • After Asoka died, India divided again & different princes regained rule

    • The Deccan was divided into many kingdoms

    • Each kingdom had their own capital with temples & workshops

    • Many outside people wanted to trade with India

    • Rome was their main trading partner


    Empires

    Caste System

    • Complex system of rules

    • Governed every aspect of a person’s life

      • Where people lived

      • What they ate

      • How they dressed

      • How they earned a living

  • To Hindus people from different castes were like different species of being

  • Rules forbade marrying out of caste or eating with someone out of your caste

  • If you were an “Untouchable", a member of the lowest caste, life was rough and restricted

  • They include:

    • Grave diggers

    • Street cleaners

    • Turning animal skin to leather

    • Other castes feared even the shadow of an untouchable

    • They had to live apart and wear a wooden clapper to warn of their approach

    • Life was full of inequalities


  • Empires

    Indian Villages

    • Most Indians lived in small villages

    • Villages included homes in clusters made of earth or stone

    • Beyond the home were farms which grew wheat, rice, cotton, & sugar cane

    • Farming usually depended on the monsoons

    • Too much or too little rain meant famine

    • A village headman & council made decisions & dealt with outside authorities

    • He was respected by people in the village


    Empires

    Family Life

    • Basic Indian families were joint families

    • Joint Families were families in which the parents, children, grandchildren, and their offspring shared a common dwelling

    • The family was patriarchal which mean that the father or eldest male headed the household

    • He was thought to have wisdom and experience

    • Usually he consulted the wife and other family members before they make a decision


    Empires

    Brahma

    • Brahma is the first God represented in the Hindu triad, or Hindu trinity

    • He is the creator of the universe

    • All living beings are said to have evolved from him

    • The four Vedas (texts) are said to have originated from his head

    • The four castes are also believed to have originated from Brahma

    • Although Brahma is considered equal to Vishnu and Shiva, he is currently not widely worshipped

    • There are several reasons for this

    • One is that he is the creator, so his work is done


    Empires

    Vishnu

    • Vishnu is the second God of the Hindu triad

    • Vishnu is regarded as a major god in Hinduism and Indian mythology

    • He is thought as the preserver of the universe

    • He represents mercy and goodness

    • Vishnu is a very popular deity and is widely worshipped

    • He has over 1,000 names


    Empires

    Shiva

    • The third deity of the Hindu trinity

    • Shiva is known as the Destroyer

    • However, even though He represents destruction, He is viewed as a positive force

    • He is viewed as the Destroyer of Evil

    • Shiva literally means “auspicious, welfare”

    • He has 1,008 names

    • Shiva is believed to have many forms

    • According to the Shiva Purana, Shiva is said to have 5 heads corresponding to his 5 tasks

    • His tasks are

      • Creation

      • Establishment

      • Destruction

      • Oblivion

      • Grace


    Empires

    At an early age they had children & family duties

    Children worked with other relatives

    A young girl would learn that as a wife she would be expected to serve and obey her husband and his family

    Parents are responsible to arrange a good marriage

    The parents also finance costly wedding festivities

    In northern India, a brides family commonly provides a dowry or payment to the bridegroom

    After marriage, the daughter leaves her home and joins her husbands family

    Women


    Empires

    Bhagavad Gita

    • A Hindu holy book where the god Krishna teaches the importance of

      • Selfishness

      • Performing religious duties

      • Devotion to God

  • It consists of 700 verses arranged in 18 chapters

  • Tradition takes it back to 3000 BCE

  • Spoken by Lord Krishna

  • Contains the song of the Lord


  • Empires

    Buddhism


    Empires

    Gautama Buddha

    • Gautama Buddha was born in 566 BC

    • Grew up in a palace as a rich person

    • Became aware of human suffering and left his lifestyle

    • Wandered for years looking for the answers to life's secrets

    • Became sick so he sat down to meditate until he understood the mystery of life

    • 48 days went by until he finally figured out what is the cause and cure of suffering and sorrow

    • When he rose he was no longer Gautama

    • He was Buddha

    • He spent the rest of his life teaching what he had learned


    Empires

    • Key part of Buddhism

    • All life is full of suffering, pain , and sorrow

    • The cause of suffering is desire for things that are really illusions

    • The only cure for suffering is to overcome desire

    • The way to overcome desire is to follow the Eight Fold Path

      • Right views

      • Right aspirations

      • Right speech

      • Right conduct

      • Right livelihood

      • Right mindfulness

      • Right contemplations

  • Eventually Buddhism split up into

    • Theravada – complex - for monks and nuns

    • Mahayana – simple and easy – for the ordinary person

  • Four Noble Truths


    Empires

    Three Schools Of Thought In China


    Empires

    Confucius

    • Great philosopher of 500 BC who was an advisor to Chinese rulers

    • Believed rulers should set a good example

    • Never wrote down his ideas so after he died his students did

    • The book is called “The Analects”

    • Stressed 5 key relationships

      • Father to Son

      • Elder brother to Younger brother

      • Husband to Wife

      • Ruler to Subject

      • Friend to Friend

    • Older people were superior to younger people

    • Men were superior to women

    • Mothers of Sons should be respected

    • He taught Filial Piety which is the respect for your parents

    • “While a father or mother is alive, a son should not travel far”

    • “Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself”

    • “People are naturally good”

    • “The best ruler is a virtuous man who led by example”

    • After Confucius died, his ideas spread

    • Confucianism NEVER became a religion


    Empires

    Legalism was created by Hanfeizi

    He taught that

    “The nature of man is evil”

    “His good is acquired”.

    Greed was the motive for most actions and causes of most conflicts

    His philosophy consists of Strict Laws and Harsh punishment

    Because of the emphasis on Law, Hanfeizi teachings were known as Legalism

    Daoism differed from Confucianism and Legalism

    Sought to live in harmony with nature

    Laozi was the founder “Old Master”

    He is credited with writing The Way Of Virtue

    Daoism evolved into a popular religion with Gods, and Goddesses

    Taoist priests experimented with Alchemy trying to transform ordinary metal into gold

    Taoists are thought to have invented gunpowder which they first used in firecrackers to scare away ghosts

    Legalism & Daoism


    Empires

    Buddhism In China

    • By AD 100 missionaries and merchants spread Buddhism from India to China

    • Buddhism became popular

    • Offered personal salvation unlike Daoism or Confucianism

    • The three beliefs mixed

    • By 400 AD Buddhism spread throughout China


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