The industrial revolution
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The Industrial Revolution. The Impacts of Urbanization and The Location of Cities Alex Budgin. The Industrial Revolution. Late 18 th Century through early 20 th Century Begins in Manchester/Liverpool area in England Industrial boom brought on by Capitalism and advancing technology:

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The Industrial Revolution

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The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution

The Impacts of Urbanization and The Location of Cities

Alex Budgin


The industrial revolution1

The Industrial Revolution

  • Late 18th Century through early 20thCentury

  • Begins in Manchester/Liverpool area in England

  • Industrial boom brought on by Capitalism and advancing technology:

    • Capitalism: An economic system characterized by open competition for profit between privately or company-owned means of production and distribution in a free market with minimal state interference or other restrictions.

    • Inanimate energy (coal, water/steam, wood, coal, etc.) replaces animate energy (man/animal power) as primary means of energy production


The industrial revolution continued

The Industrial Revolution Continued

  • Begins to spread from England to:

    • Mainland Europe

    • North America

    • Japan

    • Eastern Europe

      With the Industrial Revolution came an influx of job opportunities in major cities as new types of work were created

      Mass migration from rural areas to cities becomes common—Urbanization


Urbanization

Urbanization

  • Causes of urbanization:

    • Cities grow in number and size

    • Dramatic increase of workforce

    • Factory labor

      • Repetitive, unskilled, supervised labor (foreman created)

      • Factories resulted in increased productivity, efficiency, and profit

      • Hundreds or thousands of workers hired in one factory


Urbanization1

Urbanization

  • Consequences of Urbanization:

    • Poor sanitation/disease

    • Increase in crime/corruption

    • Crowded living environments

    • Over-urbanization results in job scarcity/poverty

      • Solution? Colonize the areas with the necessary raw materials


Colonialism and the location of cities

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • The second wave of colonialism begins as a result of the Industrial Revolution/Urbanization

    • Need for more resources grows exponentially over the 19th century to keep production up—Mass consumerism

    • Emphasis of colonialism placed on primary activities (direct harvesting of earth’s resources

    • Price of raw materials would drop ten-fold when the factory is close by

  • New colonization era focuses on establishing trade centers in foreign markets

    • Competition among European nations for drastically increases


Colonialism and the location of cities1

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Important areas for Europeans to colonize:

  • Asia:

    • Silks, spices, porcelain

  • Austral Realm/Oceania:

    • Meat, wheat, fishing/whaling, prison colony

  • Africa:

    • Slave trade, rubber, oils, diamonds

      Coastal Regions Pose Major Importance to Trade


Colonialism and the location of cities2

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Formation of Dual Economies

    • Coastal cities replace traditional interior cities in economic importance

      • European factories close to raw materials/goods

      • Price of raw materials/goods drop drastically/supply becomes high and demand low


Colonialism and the location of cities3

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Colonialism: South Asia

    British: Largest single colonized area (in population) Hindu-Islamic

    -Led to large South Asian diaspora

    Divide and Conquer Strategy

    -Cause native groups to fight one another and conquer the area


Colonialism and the location of cities4

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Colonialism: China

    British: Heavily focused on coastal areas

    -Interest in tea, silk, spices, porcelain

    -Led to widespread addiction to opium

    -Widespread diaspora


Colonialism and the location of cities5

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Colonialism: Southeast Asia

    French: Eastern mainland

    Spain: Philippines

    Britain: Malaya/Burma

    Netherlands: Indonesia

    -Major interest in tropical natural resources and maritime/ naval ports


Colonialism and the location of cities6

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Colonialism: Austral Realm/Oceania

    Britain: Australia, New Zealand, various Pacific islands

    -Primary interest: Prison colony (Later meat and wheat)

    France: Other Pacific islands

    -Primary interests: Fishing/Whaling


Colonialism and the location of cities7

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • Colonialism: Africa

    Many European powers responsible

    Interests in slavery, equatorial resources (rubber, oils)

    -Divide and conquer

    -Berlin Conference (1884-1885): Land-portioning system splitting up continent/primarily Britain and France

    -Africa feels worst effects of colonialism to this day


Colonialism and the location of cities8

Colonialism and the Location of Cities

  • As a result the rest of the country falls apart:

    • Indigenous producers cannot compete with factory speeds/cannot sell products

    • Traditional businesses fail/Workers have no choice but to move to urban areas—This becomes extremely common

    • Result: Urbanization without industrialization


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