The industrial revolution
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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. OUTLINE:. Life Before the Industrial Revolution Why in Britain First? The First Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution Social Effects of the Industrial Revolution Theoretical Response to Industrialism. LIFE BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.

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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

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The industrial revolution

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


Outline

OUTLINE:

  • Life Before the Industrial Revolution

  • Why in Britain First?

  • The First Industrial Revolution

  • The Second Industrial Revolution

  • Social Effects of the Industrial Revolution

  • Theoretical Response to Industrialism


Life before the industrial revolution

LIFE BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • Britain’s surplus of food and goods

  • demographic revolution

  • solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short

  • famine and death

  • wheat was a staple food

  • diseases were transported as exploration grew

  • infant mortality was high


Why in britain first

WHY IN BRITAIN FIRST?

  • relative freedom from external threat

  • inquisitive minds, scientific revolution

  • freedom of speculation and the free flow of knowledge

  • removed serfdom, property rights, more advanced, much greater social mobility


Why in britain first1

WHY IN BRITAIN FIRST?

  • no barriers against nobles engaging in trade and industry

  • internal customs barriers did not exist

  • better transport, navigable rivers, turnpike canals, railways

  • expanding export trade, mass market, raise standard of living


The first industrial revolution

THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • textile industry (cotton)

  • iron industry

  • coal mining

  • transportation


Cotton

Cotton

  • miracle fibre, durable, lighter than linen, insatiable demand

  • major innovations, John Kay’s flying shuttle, James Hargreaves’ “spinning jenny,” Richard Arkwright’s “water frame,” Samuel Crompton’s “mule”

  • inventions dramatically increased quantity, quality of cotton thread

  • “putting-out system”  “factory system”


Coal and iron

Coal and Iron

  • water power becoming inadequate

  • coal new source of energy, steam engines

  • Thomas Newcomen steam engine, pump out & ventilate coal mines

  • James Watt steam engine, “age of steam”


Coal and iron1

Coal and Iron

  • further expansion of coal production, increased demand for coal

  • steam power, coal, war, revolutionize iron industry

  • charcoal, smelting iron ore, pig iron, coal, charred form, coke, finished product unusable


Coal and iron2

Coal and Iron

  • Abraham Darby, smelted iron ore with coke, steam-powered forced-blast furnace, pre-heated air, British pig-iron

  • Henry Cort’s “puddling,” steam-powered rolling process

  • iron cheaper, new sources of demand


Transportation

Transportation

  • coal power to transport, railroad & steamship

  • steamships, Claude Jouffroy d’Abbans, steam-powered Atlantic crossing

  • railroad, steam engine, rail-borne wagons, iron rails replace wood

  • railroad & steamship, transport revolution, roads & canals, internal market & international

  • Britain had over 9000 miles of track, linking mines, factories, ports & cities


The second industrial revolution

THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • steel

  • chemicals

  • electricity

  • internal combustion engine


The second industrial revolution1

THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • science aided new technologies

  • First Industrial Revolution:

    • tinkerers

    • analytical

    • problem-solving

    • empirical

    • Scientific Revolution


The second industrial revolution2

THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • contribution of scientific theory to practice

  • reforming bureaucrats of Germany (Prussian “Revolution from above”), science & teamwork, universal primary education, technical schools

  • Britain, primary education not compulsory until 1880


Steel

Steel

  • strength, hardness, & elasticity

  • steel made in small melting pots or crucibles

  • Henry Bessemer, blowing air through crucible filled with molten pig iron

  • Siemens-Martin open-hearth furnace

  • Friedrich & Alfred Krupp, locomotives, machinery, engines of destruction


Chemicals

Chemicals

  • organic chemicals derived from coal make synthetic dyes


Electricity

Electricity

  • telegraph

  • Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone & Guglielmo Marconi’s radio

  • source of power, generators, alternators, & transformers

  • lighted new industrial cities, cheap, portable power in factories, electric motors


Internal combustion engines

Internal Combustion Engines

  • steam engines heavy, lots of coal

  • Nicolaus Otto, internal combustion engine, 1st automobiles, powered flight


Social effects of the industrial revolution

SOCIAL EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • WORKING AND LIVING CONDITIONS

  • CHARTISM

  • URBANIZATION AND EMIGRATION


Working and living conditions

WORKING AND LIVING CONDITIONS

  • women & children increasing portion of work force in factories & mines

  • factory work & filth, life expectancy below most rural areas

  • men, women, & children work very long hours, entrepreneurs discipline workers, regularity of clock, tyranny of business cycle

  • overcrowding, poverty, widespread illegitimacy, alcoholism, & prostitution


Working and living conditions1

WORKING AND LIVING CONDITIONS

  • Sadler Report

  • Factory Act 1833

  • Ten Hours Act 1847

  • after 1840 conditions slowly improved

  • dramatic increase in life expectancy, rise in real income, decline in infant mortality

  • people began living significantly above subsistence level


Chartism

CHARTISM

  • London Working Men’s Association, Chartists, “People’s Charter,” political program

  • The Charter

  • movement faded away without success, eventually points of Charter became law


Urbanization and emigration

URBANIZATION AND EMIGRATION

  • growth of industry encouraged movement by providing jobs

  • revolution in transportation, movement  urbanization & emigration

  • urbanization, sewage systems, clean water supplies, housing, population’s needs


Urbanization and emigration1

URBANIZATION AND EMIGRATION

  • emigration affects all countries, high rates of population increase

  • predominantly agricultural countries participated in continent-wide emigration

  • returnees brought new ideas into the narrow agricultural communities


Social structure

Social Structure

  • old social groups weakened & new ones created

  • middle classes expanded rapidly

  • below this lower middle class white collar workers, below them industrial workers & domestic servants

  • bottom were landless rural peasants, pickpockets, prostitutes, & beggars

  • lines between groups far more fluid than under old society of orders on Continent


From traditional to nuclear family

From Traditional to Nuclear Family

  • industrialization & urbanization affected structure of family & role of women

  • family & workplace became separated, with family becoming private realm

  • new family structure did not liberate women, but did improve their status

  • separation of work & home & increased leisure time of middle-class women


Theoretical response to industrialism

THEORETICAL RESPONSE TO INDUSTRIALISM

  • Utopian Socialism

  • Scientific Socialism


Utopian socialism

Utopian Socialism

  • socialism a counter-ideology to liberalism. concern for good of society

  • socialism and communism, roots, socialism acquired new meaning

  • inherent enmity between workers and industrialists


Utopian socialism robert owen

Utopian Socialism:Robert Owen

  • Robert Owen, replacing profit motive with cooperation, remake humanity

  • humanity a product of its environment, demonstrated fallacy of Ricardo’s “iron law of wages,” model factories, New Lanark, Scotland, utopia

  • Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, “iron law of wages”


Utopian socialism charles fourier

Utopian Socialism:Charles Fourier

  • Charles Fourier proposing “phalanxes,” self-sufficient model agrarian communities


Utopian socialism saint simon

Utopian Socialism:Saint-Simon

  • French Count Henri de Saint-Simon, did not promote model communities

  • socialism as outcome of inexorable historical process affecting whole of society, “rule over men”  “the administration of things”

  • brave new world, earthly paradise, French technocrats tamed nature for good with immense engineering projects


Scientific socialism

Scientific Socialism

  • scientific socialism, merging Hegelian philosophy & classical economics

  • Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels were its fathers

  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, dialectical materialism, world spirit, greater self-realization, successive negations (thesis ↔antithesis  synthesis), attacks all existing ideas & institutions


Scientific socialism1

Scientific Socialism

  • Marx retained Hegel’s dialectical materialism & goal-oriented stage theory of history, replaced Hegel’s mystical world with humanity as a species

  • David Ricardo, humanity lost product of its labour through capitalist’s appropriation of “surplus value”

  • Marx saying private property & specialization of work (division of labour) “alienated” humanity from true nature as “free producer”


Scientific socialism2

Scientific Socialism

  • for Marx, history would inexorably remedy ills of past & present, progression from ancient slave society, through feudalism, to industrial capitalism, to communism

  • history of class struggle, now between new working class, the proletariat, & the capitalist “bourgeoisie,” victory of the proletariat, end of history, state would wither away


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Life before the Industrial Revolution was unpleasant, and life remained so for some time after, but gradually improved

  • Britain had the necessary conditions for the Industrial Revolution to happen there first

  • The Industrial Revolution happened in two stages


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • The social effects of the Industrial Revolution were deep and widely felt

  • The theoretical response to industrialism was an effort to ameliorate the conditions brought about by the new technologies


The end

THE END


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