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English Matters. Why do we have to learn this?. Probably the most commonly asked question in schools. . English Matters:. English Matters:. English Matters:. English Matters:. English Matters:. English Matters:. English Matters:. Why English Matters:.

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English matters
English Matters

Why do we have to learn this?

Probably the most commonly asked question in schools.









Why english matters
Why English Matters:

  • Regardless of your profession, you are required to know how to read with comprehension and write with accuracy and eloquence.

  • What you view as simple and boring lessons are building towards more complicated and important ideas.

    Parts of Speech Parts of a Sentence Parts Of A Paragraph

    PhD Thesis College Admissions Essay 5 Paragraph Essay

    $$$$


Wrestling with writing

Wrestling With Writing

A Grammar Boot Camp for Sophomores



I the sentence
I. The Sentence

  • Parts of a Sentence

    • Clauses

      • Independent Clause: has a subject and a verb and can stand on its own

      • Subordinate Clause: has a subject and a verb but cannot stand on its own

    • Phrases

      • Always missing either a noun or a verb

      • Can be prepositional, participial, gerund, infinitive, appositive


Which one is the sentence fragment
Which one is the sentence fragment?

After he spent the majority of his career battling in the developmental territories of ECW and FCW, often playing to small audiences in flea market warehouses and trailer parks, making little money and living in the back seat of cars during extended tours while rarely seeing his family or friends and simultaneously dealing with painful injuries he could not afford to have treated.

OR

He won.


Sentence or not a sentence
Sentence or Not a Sentence?

B. A sentence must be an independent clause. A fragment is not an independent clause. Length is irrelevant.

Since CM Punk spent nearly 500 days as WWE Champion.

CM Punk dedicates his life to drug-free living.

He has a tattoo of a Pepsi logo on his arm.

After he grew weary of his friends getting beer logos tattooed on them.

Sentence or fragment?


Which is the run on sentence
Which is the run-on sentence?

During the summer of 2012, CM Punk shocked the world when he dropped his now iconic “pipe bomb,” during which he cruelly slandered Vince McMahaon and the entire WWE leadership in a series of caustic insults and observations until his microphone was cut off, yet he earned vindication only a short month later when he beat John Cena, claimed his WWE championship, and then promptly quit the company carrying the belt out of the building with him.

OR

He won, it was amazing.


Run on sentences
Run-On Sentences

C. A run-on sentence consists of two independent clauses inappropriately combined. Length is irrelevant.

CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era, he is a skillful performer and athlete.

Fix A Run-On in One of Three Ways:

CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era; he is a skillful performer and athlete.

CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era, and he is a skillful performer and athlete.

CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era. He is a skillful performer and athlete.


Day 2 the stone cold comma

If you want to learn how to use a comma, give me a “Hell Yeah!”

Day 2: The “Stone Cold” Comma


I common comma misconceptions
I. Common Comma Misconceptions

  • A Comma is NOT used for “pauses” in sentences

  • A Comma is NOT used in place of periods

  • A Comma is NOT the same thing as a semicolon

People who make these mistakes deserve a Stone Cold Stunner. And that’s the bottom line because Stone Cold said so.


Ii five championship comma rules
II. Five Championship Comma Rules

  • Use a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (known as compound sentences)

    • The coordinating conjunctions are FOR, AND, NOR, BUT, OR, YET, SO.

    • Be careful not to confuse compound sentences with sentences with compound predicates.

      Stone Cold Steve Austin was a prominent wrestler of late 90’s, but a series of leg injuries shortened his career. (compound sentence – gets a comma)

      Stone Cold involved himself in numerous feuds with Vince McMahon and fought in two Wrestlemania main events against the Rock. (compound predicate, no comma)


Ii five championship comma rules cont
II. Five Championship Comma Rules (cont)

B. When a subordinate clause begins a sentence, it must be followed by a comma.

After Stone Cold won his matches, he generally celebrated by drinking beers in the ring.

Because Stone Cold had a propensity for cussing and drinking on television, the WWE used to be rated for mature audiences only.

Since Stone Cold retired and WWE inked a deal with Hasbro, the television show has become more kid-friendly than in the past.


Ii five championship comma rules cont1
II. Five Championship Comma Rules (cont.)

C. When a prepositional or participial phrase begins a sentence, it is always followed by a comma.

In the ring, Stone Cold was known for his rough and brawling style.

During his matches, he won using a finishing move called the Stunner.

Shocked by the maneuver, opponents proved easy to pin.

After his retirement from wrestling, Stone Cold became a reality TV host and hunting advocate.

Hoping for his return to wrestling, fans still bring Austin 3:16 signs to arenas nationwide.

Important Note:

Some English textbooks will say you only need the comma if there are two or more prepositional phrases. Others will say “only when needed.”

A good rule of thumb: when the rule is “optional,” always use it.


Ii five championship comma rules cont2
II. Five Championship Comma Rules (cont)

D. Use commas to set of nonessential subordinate adjective clauses and nonessential participial phrases in sentences.

1. Nonessential means that the information is not necessary for the remainder of the independent clause to make sense – it is not related to the main idea of the sentence.

The wrestler who hated Stone Cold the most was HHH.

HHH, who is married to Vince McMahon’s daughter, had several main event matches against Stone Cold.

Stone Cold, enraged by the corporate nepotism, sought to defeat his foe.

The two icons had many feuds that fans still remember to this day.


Ii five championship comma rules cont3
II. Five Championship Comma Rules (cont.)

E. Use commas to separate adjectives of equal importance when they are used beside one another in a sentence.

1. The test to see if they are of “equal importance” is to reverse their order. If the sentence still makes sense, their importance is equal.


What is equal importance
What Is “Equal Importance”

Stone Cold was an important, influential part of the WWE’s history.

Stone Cold was an influential, important part of the WWE’s history.

Stone Cold was the first prominent wrestler to achieve mainstream success since Hulk Hogan.

Stone Cold was the prominent first wrestler to achieve mainstream success since Hulk Hogan.

When you reverse the order, the sentence still makes sense.

Thus, “equal importance.”

Thus, use a comma.

When you reverse the order, the sentence does NOT make sense.

Thus, NOT “equal importance.”

Thus, do NOT use a comma.


Some other rules
Some Other Rules

  • Use commas for items in a series

    • Stone Cold’s greatest matches were against The Rock, HHH, and Kurt Angle.

  • Use commas for items that interrupt a sentence

    • Kurt Angle is, I think, now dealing with some drug problems.

  • Use commas after direct address

    • Vince McMahon, will you let me become a professional wrestler?

  • Use commas when identifying some geographical locations

    • Monday Night Raw is visiting Baltimore, Maryland, in February.

  • Use commas to set off appositive phrases.

    • Many fans suspect that Brock Lesnar, another attitude-era legend, will return by that time.


Parts iii and iv voice and tense

I can’t be seen by you…

…I mean…

You can’t see me

Parts III and IV: Voice and Tense


Iii verb tense
III. Verb Tense

  • Verbs have many tenses.


Iii verb tense1
III. Verb Tense

B. When writing about literature (such as summarizing plot or analyzing significance), you are ALWAYS to use verb forms in the present tense.

C. When writing about the life of an author or summarizing historical information, you are always to use verb forms in the past tense.

The champ wants you to look at the paragraph on the following slide.


Holden established himself as an unreliable narrator early in The Catcher in the Rye. As Holden, the first person narrator and protagonist, introduced himself to his reader, he described his situation as one wherein he was institutionalized. He refused to talk about his childhood and simply said that he was “run down.” He proceeded to admit that he was someplace to “take it easy” and that his brother “visits [him] practically every week end” (Salinger 3). Holden’s avoidance of truth and vague description of his circumstances suggested that, from the start, he was unwilling to be honest with his reader. The author established a sense of distance between the audience and speaker that pervaded the entire novel. Salinger, who also struggled with psychological problems, likely related to Holden’s disillusionment and paranoia.


Holden establishes himself as an unreliable narrator early in The Catcher in the Rye. As Holden, the first person narrator and protagonist, introduces himself to his reader, he describes his situation as one wherein he is institutionalized. He refuses to talk about his childhood and simply says that he is “run down.” He proceeds to admit that he is someplace to “take it easy” and that his brother “visits [him] practically every week end” (Salinger 3). Holden’s avoidance of truth and vague description of his circumstances suggest that, from the start, he is unwilling to be honest with his reader. The author establishes a sense of distance between the audience and speaker that pervades the entire novel. Salinger, who also struggled with psychological problems, likely related to Holden’s disillusionment and paranoia.


Iv verb voice
IV. Verb Voice in

  • Sentences using action verbs can be constructed in the ACTIVE or PASSIVE voice.

  • In the active voice, the performer of the action appears prior to the verb, and the passive voice, the order is reversed.

    John Cena defeated Alberto Del Rio. (active)

    Alberto Del Rio was defeated by John Cena. (passive)


Iv verb voice cont
IV. Verb Voice (cont.) in

  • ALWAYS USE THE ACTIVE VOICE in academic writing.

  • Whenever possible, ALWAYS USE ACTION VERBS in academic writing.

    The championship was won by John Cena, and he was cheered by the fans.

    John Cena won the championship, and the fans cheered for him.


John in Cena is the most popular wrestler of the modern era.

John Cena earns the adulation of more fans than any other performer in the modern era.

John Cena’s motto is “Hustle, Loyalty, Respect.”

John Cena’spersonifies his motto of “Hustle, Loyalty, Respect.”

After being beaten by the Rock at Wrestlemania last year, revenge will be Cena’s after the Royal Rumble is won by him this year.

After the Rock beat John Cena at Wrestlemania last year, John Cena vowed revenge and will earn another opportunity after winning the Royal Rumble this year.


Practice: in Rewrite the following sentences, removing all instances of the passive voice and all linking verbs.

The WWE Championship has been won by John Cena 10 times, but he was not a champion at all this year.

John Cena is a supporter of the US military, and his participation in the annual Tribute to the Troops is admired by many fans.

More Make-A-Wish opportunities have been granted by John Cena than by any one else in history, and many suffering young people’s lives were touched by Cena’sdedication.


Part v parallel structure

Teamwork matters in grammar too. in

Part V: Parallel Structure

The TAG TEAM CHAMPIONS of grammar.


V parallel structure
V. Parallel Structure in

  • Within a sentence, a writer must be certain to maintain what is called parallel structure.

  • Parallel structure refers to a writer’s obligation to make sure words, phrases, and clauses within a sentence are all in the same form.

    Look at this sentence: what is the problem?

    Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the “Rock ‘N Sock Connection,” were famous for incredible skills on the microphone, having worked matches of legendary quality, and they were always willing to put their bodies on the line.


It has major errors in parallel structure
It has major errors in parallel structure! in

Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the “Rock ‘N Sock Connection,” were famous for incredible skills on the microphone, having worked matches of legendary quality, and they were always willing to put their bodies on the line.

Notice how the list in the sentence’s predicate consists first of a prepositional phrase, then of a participial phrase, and then is finally an independent clause.


Can be fixed in several ways
Can be fixed in several ways: in

Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the “Rock ‘N Sock Connection,” were famous for their incredible skills on the microphone, their matches of legendary quality, and their reckless lack of self-concern.

Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the “Rock ‘N Sock Connection,” earned renown for dazzling audiences on the microphone, putting on matches of legendary quality, and putting their bodies on the line.

Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the “Rock ‘N Sock Connection,” are regarded because they were unmatched on the microphone, they put on matches of legendary quality, and they consistently put their bodies on the line.


How could you correct these sentences
How Could You Correct These Sentences? in

The talented Mick Foley has been hit with barbed wire, lit on fire, and the Undertaker threw him from a cage.

After losing an ear, the rock hitting him with a chair 30 times, and inhaling a tooth, Mick Foley retired in 2005.


Fix the errors in parallel construction
Fix the errors in parallel construction. in

  • The Rock, whose career lasted much longer, often found success by cheating, lying, and he often betrayed his friends.

  • He later turned “face,” meaning good, and created incredible moments such as his epic match with Hulk Hogan at Wrestlemania, his long feud with HHH, and making frequent use of sexually lewd innuendos.


Part vi hulking up your quotes

Hulkamania in is going to run wild on your writing!

Part VI: Hulking Up Your Quotes


Vi using quotations in writing
VI: Using Quotations in Writing in

  • In academic writing, a quote must ALWAYS be “tagged,” meaning it is introduced in some way and not merely dropped into a paragraph.

    Hulk Hogan’s early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. “Drink your milk and take your vitamins.” Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing.


Tag your quote notice the punctuation it s so easy
Tag your quote: notice the punctuation! in It’s so easy!

Hulk Hogan’s early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. He is known for frequently saying, “Drink your milk and take your vitamins.” Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing.

Hulk Hogan’s early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. “Drink your milk and take your vitamins,” he frequently said. Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing.

Hulk Hogan’s early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. “Drink your milk,” he frequently said, “and take your vitamins.” Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing.


Vi using quotations in writing cont
VI. Using Quotations in Writing (cont.) in

  • Commas appear prior to a quote unless the quote is functioning as part of a sentence. Notice the difference:

    Hulk Hogan often said, “What are you gonna do, brother, when these 24-inch pythons run wild on you?”

    Hulk Hogan often referred to his opponents as “brother” and warned that his “24-inch pythons” might “run wild” on them.


Vi using quotations in your writing cont
VI. Using Quotations in Your Writing (cont.) in

C. Punctuation appears inside of quotation marks unless a parenthetical citation is provided; the punctuation appears after a citation.

In 1995, Hogan left the WWE and remarked, “It was the money that really got to me.”

In 1995, Hogan left the WWE and remarked, “It was the money that really got to me” (LaBar 13).


Vi using quotations in your writing cont1
VI. Using Quotations In Your Writing ( in cont)

D. A final note: when using quotations as part of dialogue in creative writing, you must start a new paragraph every time the speaker changes.

As the big event arrived, Hulk and Rock found themselves standing eye to eye as bitter enemies. Months of verbal jabbing, media scrutiny, and physical confrontations culminated in one epic match. Staring into Hulk’s eyes, the Rock said, “Know your role, and shut your mouth.”

“Listen brother, Hulkamania’s about to run wild on you,” Hulk replied.

“Time to retire, Jabroni,” the Rock responded.

“We’ll see about that,” Hulk said. The bell rang, and the match promptly began with a series of jabs and chops.



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