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Dryer Components. By: M Gummert J Rickman Agricultural Engineering Unit IRRI, Los Baños , Philippines. Heated air drying Components of a dryer. Main components Drying bin Air distribution system Fan Air heater Optional Conveyors Accessories Moisture meter Dust separator.

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Dryer Components

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Dryer Components


M GummertJ Rickman

Agricultural Engineering Unit

IRRI, Los Baños , Philippines

Heated air dryingComponents of a dryer

  • Main components

    • Drying bin

    • Air distribution system

    • Fan

    • Air heater

  • Optional

    • Conveyors

  • Accessories

    • Moisture meter

    • Dust separator

Fixed bed dryersDrying bin with plenum chamber


Self supporting structure

Simple plenum chamber

Short air delivery pathways


Uneven air velocity

Air velocity highest at the inlet

Fixed bed dryersCircular drying bin

Reversal of air flow

Reduced moisture gradient

No mixing needed

Fixed bed batch dryerReversible air flow dryer

Air distribution systemRe-circulating batch dryers

  • Cross flow

    • Grain moves downwards, air across

    • Less hindrance of grain flow, works better with wet paddy with high amount of straw and chaff

  • Mixed flow

    • Air flows from inlet to outlet ducts

    • Ducts are shaped so that they mix the grain

    • Better mixing leads to better quality


Air distribution system

Air distribution systemOptions for batch dryers

Air distribution systemsAir ducts for batch dryers

Air distribution systemsAir sweep floors

Heating systems

Heating Systems

Fines in rice create dust during the loading and drying process and reduce airflow through the rice grain.

Pre-cleaners usually consist of

scalper that lets through the grain but retains straw

a smaller second screen that removes small stones and other impurities

air aspirator for sucking out dust and light empty grains


AccessoriesElevators and Conveyors

  • For horizontal and vertical transport of grains:

    • Loading

    • Circulation

    • Discharge

  • Need to be matched to the capacity of the dryer.

    • A properly designed bucket elevator for a re-circulating batch dryer can easily reach capacities of 10t/h.

AccessoriesMoisture meter

  • Monitoring grain moisture to avoid

    • over drying

    • incomplete drying

  • Over drying

    • Unnecessary weight loss

    • Reduced milling yields

  • Incomplete drying causes qualitative and quantitative losses from

    • fungal growth

    • insect activity

    • respiration

AccessoriesDust collection system

  • Grain handling will create dust, making working around a grain drying hazardous.

  • Need for dust collection systems

    • Cyclone

    • Need to be properly sized depending on the dryer specifications.

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