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DIPTERAN DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF PEST DIPTERA IN WASHINGTON STATE CATTLE PASTURES, 2006-2007. Holly Ferguson, Richard Zack, Sally O’Neal, and Douglas Walsh Washington State University Irrigated Agriculture Research & Extension Center 24106 N. Bunn Road, Prosser, WA 99350.

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DIPTERAN DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF PEST DIPTERA IN WASHINGTON STATE CATTLE PASTURES, 2006-2007

Holly Ferguson, Richard Zack, Sally O’Neal, and Douglas Walsh

Washington State University

Irrigated Agriculture Research & Extension Center

24106 N. Bunn Road, Prosser, WA 99350


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Food Web for Arthropods in Cattle Dung

Predatory flies

Parasitic wasps

Predatory

beetles and mites

Mixed-diet flies

Fungivorous

insects

Dung-feeding

beetles

Dung-feeding

flies

Fungi

Cattle dung

Modified from Skidmore (1991)


Fly pests of cattle muscidae dung feeding flies l.jpg
Fly Pests of Cattle: MuscidaeDung-feeding Flies

  • Face fly: common vector of pinkeye, reduces weight gain & milk production

  • Horn fly: biting pest, causes bunching, reduces feeding, reduces weight gain, threshold is 200/animal

  • Stable fly: biting pest, causes bunching, reduces feeding, reduces weight gain, threshold is 10/animal

Musca

autumnalis

Haematobia

irritans

Stomoxys

calcitrans


Fly pests of cattle simuliidae l.jpg
Fly Pests of Cattle: Simuliidae

  • Called black flies, buffalo gnats

  • Breed in flowing water

  • Biting pest, nuisance, large numbers can kill


Fly pests of cattle culicidae l.jpg
Fly Pests of Cattle: Culicidae

  • Mosquitoes

  • Breed in aquatic habitats

  • Biting pest, causes bunching, reduces feeding, reduces weight gain, vector of pathogens


Fly pests of cattle tabanidae l.jpg
Fly Pests of Cattle: Tabanidae

  • Deer flies and horse flies

  • Breed in moist habitats-organic matter, larvae feed on other invertebrates, detritus?

  • Biting pest, reduces weight gain, bite puncture wounds can damage hide


Fly pests of cattle ceratopogonidae l.jpg
Fly Pests of Cattle: Ceratopogonidae

  • Biting midges, punkies, “no-see-ums”

  • Breed in moist habitats

  • Biting pest, vector of blue tongue virus disease


Fly pests of cattle oestridae l.jpg
Fly Pests of Cattle: Oestridae

  • Northern cattle grub, common cattle grub

  • Adults are called heel flies, resemble bees, cause “gadding”

  • Larvae burrow into skin, migrate through body and pop out on back (myiasis), causing damage to hide


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Counties Sampledin 2006

Snohomish

(2)

Kittitas

(2)

Whitman

(1)

Benton

Yakima

(1)

(2)


Counties sampled in 2007 l.jpg
Counties Sampledin 2007

Skagit

(3)

Kittitas

Grant

(2)

(1)

Whitman

(1)

Yakima

(2)

(1)

Benton


Trapping and sampling methods flies l.jpg

sticky stable fly trap

yellow sticky card

Trapping and Sampling Methods: Flies

pane trap

baited fly bottle trap

CO2 baited

mosquito trap

aerial net

sweep net of forage

sweep net around cattle

QuickBayt™

bait station


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Face flies on polled Hereford

Tom Harvey, K-State



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Tethinidae

43 fly families represented in the traps and samples from the cattle environment


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Food Web for Arthropods in Cattle Dung

Predatory flies

Parasitic wasps

Predatory

beetles and mites

Mixed-diet flies

Fungivorous

insects

Dung-feeding

beetles

Dung-feeding

flies

Fungi

Cattle dung

Modified from Skidmore (1991)


Dipteran habitats l.jpg
Dipteran Habitats

  • Dung

  • Decaying vegetation

  • Decomposing animals

  • Fungi

  • Grass and other plants

  • Moist or aquatic habitats

  • Parasites & predators


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Yellow Sticky Card Fly Captures

West of the Cascade Mountains

Hereford with blind eye


Yellow sticky card fly captures east of the cascade mountains kittitas and yakima counties l.jpg
Yellow Sticky Card Fly CapturesEast of the Cascade MountainsKittitas and Yakima Counties

Fresh sticky card on fenceline

Sticky card collected and identifed


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Yellow Sticky Card Fly CapturesEast of the Cascade MountainsBenton and Grant Counties


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Conclusions

  • Sticky traps catch a diversity of flies and are useful for tracking the relative abundance of face/house fly, stable fly, and black fly.

  • Horn fly difficult to trap with methods used; digital photography is currently being used to assess horn fly abundance.

  • Slightly more pest flies were trapped on sticky cards at east side locations, reasons unclear.

Sammy

2008 Mascot

WSU-RMA Beef Cattle Project


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Counties Sampledin 2008

San Juan

Skagit

(3)

(1)

Island

(1)

Kittitas

(2)

Whitman

(1)

Yakima

(2)

Benton

(4)


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Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the USDA, FCIC Risk Management Agency for funding this project. Technical assistance by Jackie Gregory, Mary Pearson, Megan Juzeler, Rebecca Razey, Tessa Andrews, Kathryn Holden, Nicole Grove, and Crystal Adams was greatly appreciated.

And we especially thank the Happy Cows of Washington State!!


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