NUTRIENTS. PAGE 147. Water. Is the most important nutrient for any pet! They can go for long periods without food but only a couple of days without water. Keep it fresh and clean!. How nutrients are used by the body
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2. Growth- increase in size of body that requires rations high in energy andprotein.
3. Reproduction- an essential part of reproduction is proper nutrition. Reproductive failures result from poor nutrition.
a. Reproduction ration contains a large amount of protein, minerals and vitamins. Reproduction requires the LARGEST amounts.
b. Improper nutrition can affect conception rates and breeding ability for males and females.
4. Lactation- Time during which the female is producing milk and needs the proper nutrients to have a large milk production.
b. Babies that are underweight at birth, or aborted fetuses are often the result of improper nutrition of mother during gestation.
a. Increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates are needed in a working diet to supply the extra energy needed.
EX)Hunting dogs need special diets because they require energy to chase after game.
Foodstuff- ingredients humans eat (food)
Feedstuff- ingredients for making animal food
A feed good in nutrients is no good if it won’t get eaten.
Means the diet is digestible and appeals to animal.
a. Roughages (or forages) - made up of leaves and the plant’s stems.
b. Concentrates-recommended for small animals as a regular part of their diet because it is high in energy or protein.
1) High energy diets include: corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and oats.
2) High protein diets include: soybean oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, and sunflower meals.
d. Ration-a feed that contains the right amount and proportion of nutrients.
1) Base on animal needs at time
3) Includes water
4) Kinds and amounts of nutrients found in feed
Ration for pregnant dogs increase rations as weight increases > should be fed 3-4 times a day
Puppies need diet higher inprotein than adults and food intake is regulated by activity
Tastes good, digestible, with a long shelf life
Affordable, reduces tartar build-up on teeth
Storage problem: food can get stale. It can lose some nutritional value.
Easy to store, tastes good and digestible
Cost is quite a bit higher than dry food.
Need twice as much protein as dogs
10% of diet should be fat and use a commercial feed variety
30% protein needed
Animal nutritionists recommend 35 to 50 percent protein on a dry-matter basis
Cats should not be fed any vegetables or fruits.
It is common for people to think that kittens and cats need milk. This is not true!
In fact, large amounts of milk will give your kitty diarrhea.
In response to consumer demand that pets be fed a proper diet, the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) was formed. Their primary function was to publish feed regulations and ingredient definitions
Experts consider a dog obese when he or she weighs over 15% of the optimum weight for its species
Pellet type of commercial feed is best (they will pick out and leave other uneaten if not pelleted)
Avoid feeding leafy green vegetables
Rabbits have a large stomach for their body size to enable them to eat large amounts of plant material quickly.
Since their teeth are growing constantly, they need to wear them down and chewing on sticks and hard pellets will keep their teeth in check.
Salt block: If you are feeding a proper pellet/veggie mix, salt blocks are not a necessary part of your rabbit\'s diet. However, many rabbits enjoy going to a salt block daily -- it is not harmful for your rabbit to do so
a. Best to use pellet type commercial
b. If mixing ration; should have a wide range of food
c. Diet needs to be consistent
Avoid foods such as iceberg lettuce, tomatoes, chocolate, raw beans, potatoes, as well as sugary or salty foods. Fresh fruits should be given only as treats, and only in small amounts.
Hamsters hoard food, if a full bowl is kept then usually they won’t hoard it they think it is their own “stash”
Carrots, cabbage, celery, cauliflower and broccoli are recommended and a portion of timothy hay 2-3 times/week is also a good idea.
Mice & Rats will not overeat, but mice and rats will pick out sweeter food.
Are strictly carnivores
Ferrets have a quick metabolism and a short digestive system, so need to eat frequently (usually every 3-4 hours).
Ferrets need a diet that is a minimum of 34-36% protein and approximately 20% fat (and low fiber).
Ferrets can eat cat food but it is not recommended that this is all they eat.
Need high meat protein, high fat, low vegetable matter diets
Guinea pigs need solid food to dull their teeth and a certain amount of vitamin C
Foods that contain high Vitamin C content = kale, dandelion greens, collard greens and peppers.
Broccoli, cabbage, corncobs, kale, romaine, red leaf, or green leaf lettuce (never iceberg), parsley, spinach and tomatoes are among their favorites.
The recommended daily feeding requirement of commercial Guinea pig feed would be 1/8 cup of pellets per two-pound Guinea pig.
Feed your Guinea pig every morning and evening and make sure they have timothy hay throughout the day.
Diet consists of hay, chinchilla pellets and water
Treats for chinchillas can be dried fruit or yogurt.
Timothy hay is better than alfalfa hay.
Raisins are also a very big thing for treats for chinchillas as well as dried banana.
For pregnant females, give them a some cranberry juice after they give birth to their babies. Some females don\'t have milk for their babies because of lack of calcium in their diet.
a. Amphibians eat insects and worms (if the amphibian is large enough)
b. Tadpoles will eat pellets of rabbit, dog, or cat food
Frozen blood worms
crickets, earthworms, termites, mealworms, wingless fruit flies, wax worms, pinkie mice
Turtles –pieces of meat or liver will do, but strawberries and other fruits can also be fed
Feed young turtles a small amount daily or every other day. Adults can be fed every 2 days.
PROTEIN should make up about 50% of the diet
FRUITS make up about 10% of the diet
Pet snakes are usually fed once every 1-2 weeks. Juveniles and adults for which a relatively rapid growth rate is desired can be fed more frequently.
Older snakes are usually fed less frequently, often once every 3-6 weeks.
Diet mostly consist of seeds
Cereal seeds and oil seeds will do
Fruit & nectar birds eat oranges, grapes, and apple slices
Should be given a variety of foods so they don’t get bored
Flakes are good for smaller fish
Amount fish eats is relative to temperature of water, kind of fish, and stage of life.
Amount fish is fed should be amount it can eat in a few minutes to avoid contaminating water.
The higher the water temperature the more the fish will eat.