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NUTRIENTS. PAGE 147. Water. Is the most important nutrient for any pet! They can go for long periods without food but only a couple of days without water. Keep it fresh and clean!. How nutrients are used by the body

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NUTRIENTS

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NUTRIENTS

PAGE 147


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Water

  • Is the most important nutrient for any pet! They can go for long periods without food but only a couple of days without water.

  • Keep it fresh and clean!


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  • How nutrients are used by the body

  • Maintenance- keeping constant; no gain or loss of weight. Usually maintenance rations are high in carbohydratesand fats.


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2. Growth- increase in size of body that requires rations high in energy andprotein.


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3. Reproduction- an essential part of reproduction is proper nutrition. Reproductive failures result from poor nutrition.


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a. Reproduction ration contains a large amount of protein, minerals and vitamins. Reproduction requires the LARGEST amounts.

b. Improper nutrition can affect conception rates and breeding ability for males and females.


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  • 4. Lactation- Time during which the female is producing milk and needs the proper nutrients to have a large milk production.

  • Lactation ration- diet high in protein, calcium, and phosphorus.

    • - The same nutrients contained in the milk are the same needed by a lactating female.


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b. Babies that are underweight at birth, or aborted fetuses are often the result of improper nutrition of mother during gestation.


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5. Work and activity:

a. Increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates are needed in a working diet to supply the extra energy needed.

EX)Hunting dogs need special diets because they require energy to chase after game.


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Types of feed and use

PAGE 148

Foodstuff- ingredients humans eat (food)

Feedstuff- ingredients for making animal food


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Feed- where the animals get their nutrients from the food they eat.


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Palatability- taste, an animal liking the feed its eating.

A feed good in nutrients is no good if it won’t get eaten.

Means the diet is digestible and appeals to animal.


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Feed classification

a. Roughages (or forages) - made up of leaves and the plant’s stems.

b. Concentrates-recommended for small animals as a regular part of their diet because it is high in energy or protein.


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Roughages

Concentrates


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1) High energy diets include: corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and oats.

2) High protein diets include: soybean oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, and sunflower meals.


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c. Supplements- feed material that contains a specific nutrient.

d. Ration-a feed that contains the right amount and proportion of nutrients.


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Diet- feed amount and type found in a ration that an animal receives.

1) Base on animal needs at time


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2) Vary according to nutrients contained in feed.

3) Includes water

4) Kinds and amounts of nutrients found in feed


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Diets for specific animals

PAGE 155


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Dogs

Ration for pregnant dogs increase rations as weight increases > should be fed 3-4 times a day


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Puppies need diet higher inprotein than adults and food intake is regulated by activity


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Food Types

Merits

Drawbacks

Moist (canned)

Tastes good, digestible, with a long shelf life

Most expensive.

Dry

Affordable, reduces tartar build-up on teeth

Storage problem: food can get stale. It can lose some nutritional value.

Semi-Moist

Easy to store, tastes good and digestible

Cost is quite a bit higher than dry food.


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Obesity is the most common nutritional disease in dogs.


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15 lbs.


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Cats

Need twice as much protein as dogs

10% of diet should be fat and use a commercial feed variety

30% protein needed


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Animal nutritionists recommend 35 to 50 percent protein on a dry-matter basis

Cats should not be fed any vegetables or fruits.


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It is common for people to think that kittens and cats need milk. This is not true!

In fact, large amounts of milk will give your kitty diarrhea.


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In response to consumer demand that pets be fed a proper diet, the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) was formed. Their primary function was to publish feed regulations and ingredient definitions


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Pets on DIETS?


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Scientific studies have confirmed that 20% of cats are overweight.

Experts consider a dog obese when he or she weighs over 15% of the optimum weight for its species


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  • Scatter the food to get them to have to eat more slowly

  • Feed only twice a day, no ungoverned meals

  • Decrease their feed amounts by 25%

  • Get creative and exercise your pet


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POCKET PET DIETS


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1.It is best to feed ALL pocket pets apellet.2.If mixing ration, should have a wide range of food.3. Diet needs to be consistent


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Rabbits

Pellet type of commercial feed is best (they will pick out and leave other uneaten if not pelleted)

Avoid feeding leafy green vegetables


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Rabbits have a large stomach for their body size to enable them to eat large amounts of plant material quickly.


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They are crepuscular, meaning they eat primarily at dawn and at dusk.


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Since their teeth are growing constantly, they need to wear them down and chewing on sticks and hard pellets will keep their teeth in check.


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  • Salt block: If you are feeding a proper pellet/veggie mix, salt blocks are not a necessary part of your rabbit's diet. However, many rabbits enjoy going to a salt block daily -- it is not harmful for your rabbit to do so


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Hamsters

a. Best to use pellet type commercial

b. If mixing ration; should have a wide range of food

c. Diet needs to be consistent


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An inadequate diet can result in fur loss, wasting, and lethargy


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Avoid foods such as iceberg lettuce, tomatoes, chocolate, raw beans, potatoes, as well as sugary or salty foods. Fresh fruits should be given only as treats, and only in small amounts.


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FOOD BOWL OR NOT?

Hamsters hoard food, if a full bowl is kept then usually they won’t hoard it they think it is their own “stash”


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Wet tail

  • Diarrhea in hamsters, can be a sign of a bad diet or bacterial infection


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  • Gerbils

  • Need some green food in their diet

  • Need about 22% protein


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They need small amounts of fresh vegetables>>

Carrots, cabbage, celery, cauliflower and broccoli are recommended and a portion of timothy hay 2-3 times/week is also a good idea.


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  • Rats

  • Can have dog

  • food substituted

  • Need 20-27% protein in their diets


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Rats need higher fiber than mice. Nuts and sunflower seeds are great sources.


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Mice & Rats will not overeat, but mice and rats will pick out sweeter food.


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Rodents need to gnaw.


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FERRETS

Are strictly carnivores


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Ferrets have a quick metabolism and a short digestive system, so need to eat frequently (usually every 3-4 hours).


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Ferrets need a diet that is a minimum of 34-36% protein and approximately 20% fat (and low fiber).


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Ferrets can eat cat food but it is not recommended that this is all they eat.

Need high meat protein, high fat, low vegetable matter diets


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Ferret kibble diet is best suggested food by most vets


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Guinea pigs need solid food to dull their teeth and a certain amount of vitamin C


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Foods that contain high Vitamin C content = kale, dandelion greens, collard greens and peppers.

Broccoli, cabbage, corncobs, kale, romaine, red leaf, or green leaf lettuce (never iceberg), parsley, spinach and tomatoes are among their favorites.


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The recommended daily feeding requirement of commercial Guinea pig feed would be 1/8 cup of pellets per two-pound Guinea pig.


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Feed your Guinea pig every morning and evening and make sure they have timothy hay throughout the day.


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Chinchillas

Diet consists of hay, chinchilla pellets and water

Treats for chinchillas can be dried fruit or yogurt.

Timothy hay is better than alfalfa hay.


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  • Raisins are also a very big thing for treats for chinchillas as well as dried banana.

  • Dried apricots, papaya, and pineapples are also good.

  • Papaya and pineapple are good sources to help prevent hair balls in chinchillas.


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For pregnant females, give them a some cranberry juice after they give birth to their babies. Some females don't have milk for their babies because of lack of calcium in their diet.


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Amphibians

a. Amphibians eat insects and worms (if the amphibian is large enough)

b. Tadpoles will eat pellets of rabbit, dog, or cat food


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slugs

Wood lice

Frozen blood worms


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crickets, earthworms, termites, mealworms, wingless fruit flies, wax worms, pinkie mice


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Live food is best for amphibians


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Turtles –pieces of meat or liver will do, but strawberries and other fruits can also be fed


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Feed young turtles a small amount daily or every other day. Adults can be fed every 2 days.

PROTEIN should make up about 50% of the diet


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VEGETABLES make up about 30% of the turtle’s diet

FRUITS make up about 10% of the diet


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  • Snakes in captivity eat a variety of items:

  • Rats

  • Mice

  • Rabbits

  • Guinea pigs

  • Etc…


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Pet snakes are usually fed once every 1-2 weeks. Juveniles and adults for which a relatively rapid growth rate is desired can be fed more frequently.


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Older snakes are usually fed less frequently, often once every 3-6 weeks.


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Python eating a wallaby at zoo


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LIZARDS


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LIZARDS must have VARIETY!


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  • Some Lizards are insectivores and only eat insects:

  • Crickets

  • Mealworms

  • Wax worms

  • Earthworms

  • Some Lizards are omnivores and eat insects & vegetable matter

  • Bearded Dragons & Uromastyx

  • Some Lizards are herbivores and only eat vegetable matter

  • Iguanas

Geckos


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Pinkies can also be fed (baby mice)


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Youth that are growing need to be fed more often than older lizards


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GUT LOADING

  • Insects need to be fed vitamins before you feed them to a lizard.

  • EX)Potato flakes, kitty chow, cabbage, carrots, potatoes


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Birds

Diet mostly consist of seeds

Cereal seeds and oil seeds will do

Fruit & nectar birds eat oranges, grapes, and apple slices


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FEEDING FISH

  • Fish can be herbivores, carnivores or omnivores

  • Most all aquarium fish are omnivores


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Herbivores

  • Plecos, algae eaters, pacus, African cichlids

  • Algae wafers, lettuce, zucchini


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Omnivores

  • Catfish, mollies, crayfish, goldfish

  • Feed staple flake food diet or pellets


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Carnivores

  • Betas, needlefish, Jack Dempsey, Oscar

  • Feed a diet of brine shrimp, tubifex worms, bloodworms, feeder fish


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Fish

Should be given a variety of foods so they don’t get bored


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Shrimp, krill, and plankton are ideas for larger fish

Flakes are good for smaller fish


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Amount fish eats is relative to temperature of water, kind of fish, and stage of life.

Amount fish is fed should be amount it can eat in a few minutes to avoid contaminating water.

The higher the water temperature the more the fish will eat.


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