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8 th Grade The North. Chapter 12 Study Guide. The Industrial revolution is a period of rapid growth during which machines became essential to industry. 1. What is the Industrial Revolution?. It shifted the location of production from homes to textile mills.

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Chapter 12 Study Guide

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8th Grade

The North

Chapter 12 Study Guide

The Industrial revolution is a period of rapid growth during which machines became essential to industry.

1. What is the Industrial Revolution?

It shifted the location of production from homes to textile mills.

2. How did the water frame change the way cloth was made?

Samuel Slater

3. Who was the man responsible for bringing new textile machines to the U.S.?

The North had more rivers to provide power.

4. Why were more American textile mills built in the North than in the South?


5. The tools used to produce items or to do work are known as

Eli Whitney came up with the idea of interchangeable parts.

6. What was Eli Whitney’s influence on American manufacturing?

Tariffs on foreign goods encouraged Americans to buy domestic goods.

7. How did the war of 1812 help American Manufacturing?

Thomas Jefferson

Which American Patriot said, “to be independent for the comforts of life we must fabricate them ourselves?

Textile manufacturers keep cost low by hiring children and paid them very little

8. How did factory owners keep their cost low?

Four years

9. How many years would most “Lowell girls” stay at the mill?

Workers suffered from health problems, such as chronic cough, due to unsafe conditions.

10. What would it be like to work in a factory?

A Trade Union is an organization of workers who tried to improve pay and working conditions for members.

11. What is a trade union?

Steam-powered train


12. What are new forms of transportation invented during this time?

The Transportation Revolution enabled goods to travel quickly across the United States.

13. How did theses new vehicles change trade?


14. What was the first Steamboat called?

Interstate travel

Right to water travel over the Hudson river in New York

15. What was Gibbons v Ogden about?

The railroads had to pass through mountainsand rivers.

16. What was difficult about building railroads?

The Telegraph enabled people to send news quickly from coast to coast.

17. Why was the telegraph important?

Morse Code – developed by Alfred Lewis Vail

18. What is a Communication system of dots and dashes used for letters called?

The shift to steam power meant factories no longer had to be built near streams, rivers, or waterfalls.

19. How did technology allow factories to be built anywhere?


20. In the mid-1800’s where was most U.S. industries?

It provided easier access to workers.

21. Why were most factories built in or near cities?

Cyrus McCormick

23. Who invented the mechanical reaper?

John Deere came up with the idea for a steel plow.

22. What did John Deere invent?

They could buy items they could not afford in the past.

24. How did mass production change average American lives?

Richard Arkwright

25. Who invented the water frame?

Francis Cabot Lowell

26. Who put a loom and weaving into the same factory?

Robert Fulton

27. Who designed the steamboat Clermont?

Sarah G. Bagley

28. Who fought for 10 hour workdays?

Samuel Slater

29. Who Created the Rhode Island System?

Aaron Ogden

30. Who held a monopoly on all new York steamboats?

Samuel F.B. Morse

31. Who made the telegraph?

Peter Cooper

32. Who built the train Tom Thumb?

British ships blocked seaports, preventing foreign ships from delivering foods. Americans had to buy items they needed from American businesses. This helped the economy.

Essay 1. How did the War of 1812 help the U.S. economy?

The Lowell system was developed by Francis Cabot Lowell. The system included a loom that could spin thread and weave cloth. It depended on the labor of young unmarried women hired from local farms.

Essay 2. What was the Lowell System?

It provided easier access to workers, allowing businesses to lower wages.

Essay 3. Why did some companies decide to build their factories closer to cities and transportation centers?

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