World War I. The Eastern Front and global involvement. Longer than the Western Front No stalemate like the Western Front, but just as deadly Trenches never really developed, more fluid troop movement 1000 miles long, so troop density was lower. Location.
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World War I
The Eastern Front and global involvement
Longer than the Western Front
No stalemate like the Western Front, but just as deadly
Trenches neverreally developed,more fluid troopmovement
1000 miles long,so troop densitywas lower
Germany vs. Russia—almost destroyed the Russian army
Happened at the same time as the Germans were losing the Battle of the Marne in France
Kept Russia at bay the rest of the war
Russian retreat resulted in permanent loss of land (15% of its territory)
1915-1916 in the Ottoman Empire
Purpose: to capture the capitol city of Istanbul and secure access for Russia to the Dardanelles strait (warm water port!)
An attempt by Britain andFrance to lure Greece and Bulgaria into the war on their side
Also a new front was neededsince the Western Front wasdeadlocked.
Half a million died in the campaign
The Allies gave up the fight after a year
Heavy involvement from Australia and New Zealand, still a deeply felt loss—prior to this loss, they had great confidence in their British military roots
Germany’s colonial possessions came under assault
Japan attacked their holdings in China and in the Pacific islands
English and French troops attacked African possessions—not well defended (Germany only recently established presence there)
Results in Africa: Germany lost all colonies
Use the map on page 418 to answer the questions on your paper.
1917 Germany intensified submarine use in the Atlantic Ocean—using U-boats
Announced they would sink any ship, unannounced, that was near Britain
This was called unrestricted submarine warfare
This policy had been used before—1915, Germany sank the British passenger ship Lusitania—included 128 US citizens.
Germany had stopped this kind of warfare for awhile, but needed an edge on the Allies so they resumed it in 1917
Used for enforcing a blockade—for example, American supplies being transported to Great Britain as support in the war
Able to sink large ships with a single hit (Lusitania was a one-hit sink)
The Germans took a gamble—they’d force the British to surrender before the US was provoked to full war
They lost the gamble.
Woodrow Wilson, the US President, warned Germany several times to stop unrestricted sub warfare, but 3 US ships were sunk
The US had previously kept a strict (?) non-intervention policy
German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to Mexico saying they’d help them “reconquer” the land lost to the United States if they’d join with Germany in WWI.
Britain intercepted the note, decoded it, and passed it on to the US.
Zimmerman initially denied the note’s existence, but in a speech later tried to explain the tone was misunderstood…
Read the Zimmerman Note and Arthur Zimmerman’s speech about it. Then answer the questions.
Russia was suffering from harsh winters, low food supply, low fuel supply
Civil unrest forced the Czar to abdicate his throne
The new government tried to stay in the war, but it was still too hard to maintain
A revolution produced another new government under Vladimir Lenin—ended Russia’s involvement in the war.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended the war between Germany and Russia
With Russia gone, Germany could focus its efforts on the Western front
Almost to Paris, it seemed like Germany could win the whole thing, but their army was so weakened, a newly revived Allied army was able to beat them—with 140,000 new US troops
350 tanks, then 2 million more US troops arrived
One by one, Central Powers surrendered
Kaiser Wilhelm stepped down on November 9, 1918. The new government met with the French to discuss a treaty.
Armistice—agreement—signed November 11 at 11 am.